In many places in the world, it's winter. There are no leaves on the trees. They're barren. Seeing the bare branches has brought to mind some thoughts about one Italian adjective for this: spoglio.
Di inverno le foglie appassiscono e gli alberi sono spogli.
In the winter, the leaves dry up and the trees are bare.
One word leads to another! It even leads to getting undressed.
Italian words that end in "io" often come from Latin, where the word might end in ium. In fact there is a Latin noun "spolium ": the skin or hide of an animal stripped off; Over time, this came to refer to the arms or armor stripped from a defeated enemy:
booty, prey, spoil.
We can make a connection with a tree that has been stripped of its leaves.
We can also see a connection between "the spoils" in English and "spolium" or the derivative "spoglia"in Latin.
Another related Latin word is "spoliarium" referring to the basement of the Roman Colosseum where the fallen and dying gladiators were dumped and devoided of their worldly possessions.
Nowadays, the feminine plural le spoglie is used to indicate the remains of animals or humans when they have died.
Ma che senso ha mettere le spoglie di due persone nella stessa bara?
But what sense is there in putting the remains of two people in the same coffin?Play Caption
Although talking about dead bodies is pretty gruesome, it gives us insight into some very common words you will hear if you go to the doctor, to the gym, or anywhere where you might take off your clothes. Some places have an appropriate room where you can change and take a shower, which in English, we might call the locker room or shower room. Lo spogliatoio (and often indicated as such on the door) will typically be in a gym, at a pool, a hospital or doctor's office, or, as in the example below, a workplace.
Chi ha aggiustato la porta dello spogliatoio?
Who fixed the changing room door?
Caption 30, La Ladra Ep. 3 - L'oro dello squalo - Part 13Play Caption
When you change clothes, first you have to get undressed. In Italian, the verb is reflexive: spogliarsi. We've come a long way from the Roman Colosseum.
Andiamo a casa tua. A casa? Non ti vorrai spogliare in mezzo alla strada?
Let's go to your house. My house? You don't want to undress in the middle of the road, do you?
Captions 52-54, La Ladra Ep. 4 - Una magica bionda - Part 6Play Caption
Can you come up with another way to say the same thing? [answer at the bottom of the page]
In the following example, there is no spogliatoio at this doctor's office. The couple is not an actual couple and they are pretty embarrassed. La Tempesta is a wonderful movie on Yabla, by the way, set in a ceramics factory in Treviso in the Veneto region of Italy.
Certo. -Adesso, siccome siamo un po' in ritardo, vi inviterei a spogliarvi. Vi visito insieme, d'accordo? Ci sono problemi? No, no, no. -No.
Of course. -Now, since we're a bit late, I invite you to get undressed. I'll examine you together, all right? Are there any problems? No, no, no. -No.
Captions 7-10, La Tempesta film - Part 19Play Caption
The doctor is being very polite, but if he ordered them to get undressed, what would he say? [answer at bottom of page]
Now here's a little scene in a refrigerator truck.
A questa temperatura, con i vestiti inzuppati, in nove minuti il sangue diventa ghiaccio. Ah, adesso che lo so mi sento meglio! Senti, spogliati. Eh? -Spogliati! Ah, bel modo di morire, sì... -Piantala! L'unico modo per combattere l'ipotermia è togliersi i vestiti e sommare il calore corporeo di entrambi.
At this temperature, with sopping wet clothes, in nine minutes blood turns to ice. Ah, now that I know it, I feel better! Listen, strip down. Huh? -Strip down! Ah, nice way to die, yes... -Quit it! The only way to fight hypothermia is to take off our clothes and sum up the body heat of both of us.
Captions 48-55, Il Commissario Manara S1EP2 - Vendemmia tardiva - Part 9Play Caption
You can also undress another person. In this case, it's not reflexive.
Dai Carlo vai, vai, spogliala, vasala [sic], spogliala!
Come on Carlo, go on, go on, undress her, kiss her [sic], undress her!
Caption 11, Trailer PaparazziPlay Caption
La gente della notte fa lavori strani Certi nascono oggi e finiscono domani Baristi, spacciatori, puttane e giornalai Poliziotti, travestiti, gente in cerca di guai Padroni di locali, spogliarelliste, camionisti Metronotte, ladri e giornalisti
The people of the night do weird jobs Some start up today and end tomorrow Baristas, drug dealers, hookers, and newsdealers Cops, transvestites, people looking for trouble Bar owners, strippers, truckers, Night watchmen, thieves, and journalists
Captions 23-28, Radio Deejay Lorenzo Jovanotti - Gente della nottePlay Caption
Andiamo a casa tua. A casa? Non vorrai spogliarti in mezzo alla strada?
Certo. -Adesso, siccome siamo un po' in ritardo, spogliatevi. Vi visito insieme, d'accordo? Ci sono problemi? No, no, no. -No.
To get more information about a topic talked about in a lesson, for example, the reflexive touche on here, go to the lessons tab and do a search, such as: reflexive. The lessons where the reflexive is mentioned will be there, one after the other.
It's coming on winter, at least in the northern hemisphere, where Italy is located.
In many places in Italy, people heat their houses using wood. or, In the country and in small villages, lots of people have fireplaces in their kitchens.
Right and wrong. In English, we think of wood as wood, whatever its use. But in Italian, there are two similar but different words, depending on what we do with the wood.
To construct something we use legno (wood), a masculine noun. This has its root in the Latin noun "lignum."
Interestingly, Italians use two basic prepositions with legno to correspond to "wooden": in and di which can both mean "of."
Questo meraviglioso piano in legno si chiama spianatoia e serve proprio per impastare la nostra pasta fresca.
This marvelous wooden surface is called a pastry board and it's used exactly for making our fresh pasta dough.
Captions 90-92, L'Italia a tavola Culurgiones D'Ogliastra - Part 1Play Caption
Veniva impastato in casa, proprio su quella superficie di legno e poi messa [sic: messo], questo impasto, su quella specie di tavola, veniva portato al forno, perché in casa non c'erano dei forni.
The dough was worked at home, right on that wooden surface and then this dough was put on that type of wooden board and brought to the oven, because there were no ovens in houses.
Captions 64-68, Alberto Angela - Meraviglie Ep. 1 - Part 12Play Caption
To build a fire for heating or cooking, we use the feminine noun la legna. This comes, again from the Latin, from the plural of "lignum": "ligna." In fact, la legna, just like the collective noun "firewood," usually refers to a collection of pieces of wood to be used for burning.
If we ask what kind of wood is used, then we can use legno. In the following example, someone is asking the pizzaiolo what kind of wood he uses in his forno a legna.
Quello è il forno a legna. Che legno usate?
That's the wood oven. What kind of wood do you use?
Captions 39-40, Antonio presenta la Pizzeria EscopocodiseraPlay Caption
To be even more specific, we can expand on legna: legna da ardere (wood for burning/firewood). The following example is from a fascinating video on Yabla about olive trees and making olive oil.
Quando avveniva questo distacco delle due parti dell'ulivo, una della due parti veniva sacrificata come legna da ardere.
When this detachment took place of the two parts of the olive tree, one of the two parts was sacrificed as firewood.
Captions 47-48, Olio Extra Vergine Pugliese Introduzione e cenni storiciPlay Caption
The fireplace is often called il camino (note the single M) and more often than not, the diminutive is used: il caminetto. The chimney is the canna fumaria (the smokestack).
In place of la caldaia (furnace, hot water heater), some people have una stufa a legna (wood stove).
And let's not forget that the best pizza is said to be made in a forno a legna (wood-burning oven). In these cases the preposition a is used, referring to the function. What makes it run?
Peppe ha infornato la pizza nel forno a legna, che è un forno tradizionale.
Peppe has put the pizza in the wood oven, which is a traditional oven.
Caption 48, Antonio presenta la Pizzeria EscopocodiseraPlay Caption
This goes for bread, too.
Antico a lievitazione naturale, cotto a legna, ci sono altri tipi...
Traditional sourdough, baked in a wood oven, there are other kinds...
Caption 64, Anna e Marika Il panePlay Caption
Now you know the difference between legno and legna. They are both right; you just need to know the context.
Italians have a reputation for being concerned with drafts, chills, sudden changes of temperature, etc. This translates to parents often being very protective of their kids when it comes to wearing the appropriate clothing for a given situation.
There's a little song featured on Yabla all about this struggle between parents and their children on this subject.
Che senza canottiera
Poi mi prendo il raffreddore
That with no undershirt
I will catch a cold later
Captions 17-18, Zecchino d'Oro Metti la canottieraPlay Caption
Note the verb used to catch or get a cold is prendere (to take). It's often used reflexively, prendersi Another verb that is often used for getting sick, is beccare as in the following example.
Ah, buongiorno. Scusate se starnutisco, ma, purtroppo, mi sono beccata l'influenza. L'influenza è un bruttissimo raffreddore, anzi, un po' più di un raffreddore perché ti prende tutto il corpo e senti i brividi e ti senti debole, ti senti stanca.
Ah, good morning. Sorry if I'm sneezing, but, unfortunately, I've caught the flu. The flu is a really awful cold, rather, a bit more than a cold because it affects your whole body, and you feel shivers, and you feel weak, you feel tired.
Captions 1-5, Marika spiega Il raffreddorePlay Caption
Marika could have said: Mi sono presa un brutto raffreddore (I caught a bad cold).
When a cold is really bad (as described above by Marika) and you have to stay home from work or school, it's often called l'influenza, even though it might or might not technically be the flu as we understand it.
Note also that l'influenza also means "the influence" and has a verb form influenzare (to influence).
Non credo che la Francia abbia influenzato in modo determinante la mia cucina.
I don't believe that France influenced my cooking in a decisive way.
Caption 13, L'arte della cucina I Luoghi del Mondo - Part 11Play Caption
We use the verb beccare to talk about insect bites, too. In this case it isn't reflexive. The mosquito is doing the biting.
M'ha beccato una zanzara.
A mosquito bit me.
When we don't have a full-blown cold, but suspect we're about to because we got a chill, we might say:
Ho preso freddo
(I got a chill).
The verb is still prendere (to take, to get).
Prendere freddo is often the reason given for catching a cold. Things Italians watch out for to avoid this are uno spiffero or corrente (a draft), climatizzatori (air conditioners), ventilatori (fans), and especially not covering up or taking a shower after working up a sweat.
When we see the word “ape,” it makes us think of a rather large, ferocious animal. But in Italian, its meaning is almost the opposite. Ape is the word for "bee." The Ape, as we shall see, was built for people who work, for someone who is busy as a bee.
At the end of World War II, many, if not most Italians were having money problems, and certainly only a privileged few had the financial means to buy a car, much less pay for its fuel and maintenance.
The Ape came to the rescue. In 1947, the inventor of the Vespa, (a popular motor scooter whose name means “wasp”) came up with the idea of a light, three-wheeled commercial vehicle to power Italy's economical reconstruction. Piaggio, who had built the Vespa became interested and took on the project. The very first Ape models were glorified Vespas with two wheels in the rear, and a flat-bed structure on top of the rear axle— a sort of tricycle with a motor.
Little by little, the model developed to include a cab to protect the driver. Designed as a one-seater, a passenger is often seen squeezed in, as well, but it's definitely a tight fit. There are now doors on either side to facilitate parking right up next to a wall. Although no longer made principally in Italy, the Ape is still in production today!
Because of its small scooter-sized engine, the Ape doesn’t go fast (maximum around 60 kilometres an hour), and as a result, you don’t need to have an automobile driver’s license to drive one. The motor is strong enough to carry a sizeable load, and to get up the steep hills found in many parts of the country.
We see in the movie Chi m’ha visto, that Peppino’s vehicle is indeed an Ape. Given the size of the streets in so many Italian towns, cities, and country roads as well, the Ape is just right for negotiating them. Peppino races around like a maniac anyway, honking at pedestrians to get out of his way.
If you have ever been traveling in Italy, you might have heard an Ape before seeing one. The noise is terrifying especially as it climbs steep, narrow, cobblestone streets in the middle of an old town, where the close stone walls amplify the sound even more. Getting caught behind one on a narrow road can add hours and frustration to your trip. Fortunately, the Ape is so narrow, the driver can hug the side of the road so that cars can pass. Menomale!
Still a familiar sight all over Italy, the Ape is amazingly useful for the handyman, gardener, farm worker, delivery man, etc.
In an episode of Commissario Manara, Manara himself actually drives an Ape to figure out how a crime had been committed. He's putting himself in the killer's place.
Al piazzale davanti allo studio ci potrei andare a piedi, invece ci vado con l' Ape. Perché? Perché devo trasportare qualcosa, qualcosa di pesante. E che cos'è?
To the courtyard in front of the studio I could go by foot, but instead I go with the "Ape." Why? Because I have to transport something, something heavy. And what is it?
Captions 44-47, Il Commissario Manara S1EP11 - Beato tra le donne - Part 9Play Caption
Even though the Ape is pretty small already, many Italians use a diminutive suffix and call it l'Apino. It also distinguishes it from ape the insect, and it renders the idea of "small."
You might have noticed, from watching TV shows and movies on Yabla, or elsewhere, that in Italy, the term dottore (doctor) is used loosely, or rather, differently than in other countries. In fact, addressing someone with a particular role often means using their title (or guessing at it). Sometimes signor (Mr.) and signora (Mrs.) just don't seem respectful enough.
One example of this usanza (use, custom) occurs in a recent episode about Adriano Olivetti.
Io e la mia famiglia dobbiamo tutto al Dottor Dalmasso.
My family and I owe everything to Doctor Dalmasso.Play Caption
Dalmasso is just an executive in a company, not necessarily a doctor (even in terms we go on to describe below), but he is one of the most important people there. People treat him with respect by using dottore instead of his name or they shorten it to dottor when it's followed directly by the person's name: Dottor Dalmasso, in this case.
In some cases dottor is used, but with a person's first name. Many people follow the reasoning that it's better to be too respectful than not respectful enough. In the following example, Giacomo could be a physician or someone's boss. We would need context to determine this.
Dottore! -Gina! -Dottore! Dottor Giacomo. Che succede? -Signora, Giacomo non risponde. -Giacomo!
Doctor! -Gina! - Doctor! Doctor Giacomo. What's going on? -Ma'am, Giacomo isn't responding. -Giacomo!Play Caption
If the person is a woman, then it's dottoressa by itself, or followed by the name (first name or last name depending on the relationship). In the following example, the dottoressa in question works at city hall. Her position of importance gives her the title, more than any degree she might (or might not) have.
Dottoressa, scusate, ma perché ci volete fare questo regalo?
Doctor, excuse me, but why do you want to give us this gift?
Caption 24, L'oro di Scampia - film - Part 14Play Caption
Lawyers also fall into the "important person" category and are often addressed by their professional status. We might liken this to the use of "Esquire," or "Esq." for short, used primarily in written correspondence with attorneys.
Sì, avvocato De Santis.
Yes, Attorney De Santis.
Caption 50, La Ladra - Ep. 5 - Chi la fa l'aspetti - Part 3Play Caption
The other way dottore is used is for someone with a college or university degree. Graduates earning the title dottore have often completed a Laurea triennale (three-year bachelor's degree equivalent) plus a Laurea Magistrale (two-year master's degree equivalent). It has nothing to do with being a medical doctor. Learn more here about higher learning in Italy.
As well as being an industrialist, Adriano Olivetti designed machinery, so it makes sense for him to have the title of ingegnere (engineer.) And so in the film about Olivetti, that's how many people address him. It so happens that he did, indeed, have a degree in engineering.
Ingegnere, Lei mi sta facendo una proposta incredibile.
Sir, you are making me an incredible offer.Play Caption
Other titles commonly used in Italian before a name, or in place of a name, are Architetto (architect), Commissario, (commissioner, chief) Notaio (notary).
We hope this little article has shed some light on this curious usanza (custom). Finding a suitable translation for these titles can be tough. Sometimes there's no good alternative, so we use a word we feel can fill the bill, even if it isn't a word-for-word translation.
Ritenne che la maggior parte dei pendolari aveva una grande passione per i racconti gialli.
She found that the majority of commuters had a great passion for yellow [detective] stories.
Captions 36-37, L'Eredità -Quiz TV - La sfida dei sei. Puntata 2Play Caption
Here, although the color yellow does play an important role, un giallo is something specific: a crime, mystery or detective story. Note: The moderator of the quiz show uses giallo as an adjective: i racconti gialli (the detective stories) and it is common to say un romanzo giallo (a detective novel), to specify the format, but giallo as a noun encompasses any format and is widely used and understood by Italians.
But what's this "yellow" business?
Here's the story. (click here for the extended Italian version).
In 1929, Mondadori, a major Italian publishing house, came out with a series of detective novels. They were tascabili (in paperback, literally "pocket-sized") and had a distinguishing yellow cover. They were called I libri gialli della Mondadori (Mondadori's Yellow Books). In 1946, the name of these books changed to I gialli Mondadori. The name giallo caught on, and has been used ever since to indicate a detective, crime, or police mystery, and can be applied to books, comic books (as in Diabolik mentioned on the quiz show), movies, or even news events. Giallo with this meaning has become a word everyone should know, especially if you like to read. And it can't be guessed at if you don't know the story. But now you know the story, too.
You may have heard of an American television series from the eighties and nineties called Murder, She Wrote with Angela Lansbury. This series, dubbed into Italian, became extremely popular (and stilll is) as La Signora in Giallo (The Lady in Yellow). This play on words should make sense to you now!
Read this article (in Italian) for more information about the Italian version of the show, and, why not? Find it for streaming in Italian, just for fun.
Pasqua (Easter) is a spring holiday. Although things are changing, traditionally, Italy is still a Roman Catholic country, so Pasqua is a big deal in all parts of the country. Local priests travel around the town and countryside to bless homes in the weeks preceding Easter. On la domenica delle palme (Palm Sunday), churches are filled, and olive branches are distributed. There are plenty of palm trees in Italy, but olive branches have become the tradition.
Some towns and cities stage elaborate processions on venerdì santo (Good Friday). There are famous ones in cities such as Gubbio and Assisi in Umbria, as well as in the Colosseum in Rome.
Let’s have a reminder of what Marika shared with us when talking about Christmas:
Ma prima voglio dirti che [sic] "Natale con i tuoi, Pasqua con chi vuoi".
But first I want to tell you that [sic] "Christmas with your family, Easter with whomever you want".Play Caption
This is a very famous rhymed saying in Italy. Christmas is dedicated to family, and you are really expected to spend it with your family, but Easter is less strict. In addition, just as December 26th is a holiday in Italy (Santo Stefano), to invite the relatives you didn’t invite for la vigilia (Christmas Eve) or Natale (Christmas Day), Easter Monday or Pasquetta (little Easter), also called Lunedì dell’ angelo (Monday of the angel), is still a holiday, and still a part of Pasqua. It gives everyone a second opportunity to get together with the people they didn’t see on Easter Sunday. It’s been a national holiday since after World War II, intended to give people more time off from work and school. Many Italians use this day to spend in the country, with a picnic or walk.
We alter Pasqua to become Pasquetta by adding a suffix. The suffix changes the quality but not the basic substance of the noun it's attached to. So, let's talk about this -etta suffix. We see that it indicates “small,” or “less important.” What are some other words that can have the diminutive suffix added?
Ora (hour) - un'oretta (a short hour, about an hour, a little under an hour, an hour or so).
Se avete tempo, potete farli [farle] lievitare da soli [sole] un'altra oretta, altrimenti procedete.
If you have time, you can have each one rise on its own for another hour or so, otherwise go ahead.
Captions 13-14, L'Italia a tavola - Panzerotti Pugliesi - Part 2Play Caption
La cena (the dinner) - una cenetta (a light supper, an intimate dinner)
E per farmi perdonare, che ne dici stasera di una cenetta solo per noi due?
And to get you to forgive me, what do you say to a little dinner for just the two of us?
Caption 41, Acqua in bocca - Tra moglie e marito... - Ep 11Play Caption
So far, we have used feminine nouns as examples. Masculine words work the same way, but we use -etto.
Un divano (a couch, a sofa) - un divanetto (a loveseat)
Seguitemi, questo è un tipico divanetto siciliano.
Follow me, this is a typical Sicilian little loveseat.
Caption 23, Adriano - Negozio di Antichità SgroiPlay Caption
Only a few words with -etta and -etto as suffixes have been mentioned here. There are many more. And note that -etto and -etta are not the only suffixes used as diminutives. There are -ino and -ina, too, but we’ll talk about these another time.
Learn more about suffixes that alter words.
Enjoy your Pasquetta, whether you are a casa (at home), al lavoro (at work), a scuola (at school), in viaggio (traveling), con amici (with friends) or in vacanza (on vacation).
To learn what countries do consider Easter Monday a holiday, and in what way, see this Wikipedia article.