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When Giallo is not Only a Color

This brings us to another word used in this week's segment of L'Eredità, the quiz show: giallo (yellow).

Ritenne che la maggior parte dei pendolari aveva una grande passione per i racconti gialli.
She found that the majority of commuters had a great passion for yellow [detective] stories.
Captions 36-37, L'Eredità -Quiz TV - La sfida dei sei Puntata 2 Part 12

Here, although the color yellow does play an important role, un giallo is something specific: a crime, mystery or detective story. Note: The moderator of the quiz show uses giallo as an adjective: i racconti gialli (the detective stories) and it is common to say un romanzo giallo (a detective novel), to specify the format, but giallo as a noun encompasses any format and is widely used and understood by Italians. 

 

But what's this "yellow" business?

 

Here's the story. (click here for the extended Italian version).

 

In 1929, Mondadori, a major Italian publishing house, came out with a series of detective novels. They were tascabili (in paperback, literally "pocket-sized") and had a distinguishing yellow cover. They were called libri gialli della Mondadori (Mondadori's Yellow Books). In 1946, the name of these books changed to gialli Mondadori. The name giallo caught on, and has been used ever since to indicate a detective, crime, or police mystery, and can be applied to books, comic books (as in Diabolik mentioned on the quiz show), movies, or even news events. Giallo with this meaning has become a word everyone should know, especially if you like to read. And it can't be guessed at if you don't know the story. But now you know the story, too.

 

You may have heard of an American television series from the eighties and nineties called Murder, She Wrote with Angela Lansbury. This series, dubbed into Italian, became extremely popular (and stilll is) as La Signora in Giallo (The Lady in Yellow). This play on words should make sense to you now!

 

Read this article (in Italian) for more information about the Italian version of the show, and, why not? Find it for streaming in Italian, just for fun.

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Doppiare, Sdoppiare: It's All About Dubbing

A recent segment about Italian Fascism and language focuses on dubbing.

 

What's doppiaggio (dubbing)? After receiving a translation of a script, an actor, in a special recording booth with a monitor, has to watch a movie, adapting what he or she reads to whatthe actor on the screen is saying. The meaning and intention have to be there, and at the same time, there must be the same number of syllables, more or less, so that it can look convincing. It’s a huge, creative, and painstaking job. Historically, Italians have been champions at this. Dubbing provides a way for people to enjoy foreign movies. When dubbing started out in Italy, lots of people all over the country had never learned to read. They were analfabeti (illiterate).

Nel millenovecentotrentatré viene inventato il doppiaggio, uno dei più complessi e magici trucchi cinematografici.
In nineteen thirty-three dubbing is invented, one of the most complex and magical tricks in cinema.
Captions 11 and 13, Me Ne Frego: Il Fascismo e la lingua italiana - Part 9 

 

Even today, although many Italians read a lot, there are still those who aren't comfortable or just don’t enjoy reading. When given the choice of a dubbed movie or one with subtitles, dubbing wins most of the time. This is certainly a generalization, but the fact that you need to go to a special art movie theater to find a movie in its original language with subtitles bears witness to this.

 

There are arguments for both dubbing and using subtitles, each having vantaggi (advantages) and svantaggi (disadvantages). Luckily, in this digital age, you can often choose your language when watching at home on DVD, streaming, or even on commercial TV. It comes down to personal preference as well as familiarity with the original language of the movie. Culture, tradition, and economics determine what happens in the movie theater.

 

There was a time when it was popular to dub Italian films in post-production, rather than record the sound live. At the outset, it may have been for technical reasons, as recording live sound is complicated, but for some directors, like Fellini, it was part of their art. And ofcourse, in many filmmaking situations, there comes a time when dubbing is needed to fix mistakes made by actors or for technical reasons. So the dubbing booth is part of making movies.
Italians, having had a lot of practice over the years, happen to be extremely good at dubbing.

 

Here at Yabla, of course, we promote watching a video in the original language. It’s hard to learn a foreign language if you never hear it spoken. And being able to turn the subtitles on and off with a click is pretty handy.

 

Speaking of Yabla, two people on our talent force have worked in the field of dubbing.

Eh, all'inizio sì, lo facevo come [sic], doppiavo grandi artisti e attori.
Yeah, at the beginning, yes; I did that like I dubbed famous artists and actors.
Poi, eh, mi sono concentrata molto sui documentari.
Then, ah, I started concentrating a lot on documentaries.
Captions 14-15, Marika e Daniela: Intervista a Daniela Bruni 

 

Inoltre, questo... in questo corso si impara a interpretare: interpretare un personaggio, interpretare un testo.
In addition, this... in this course one learns to act: to play a role, to interpret a script.

Questo è fondamentale quando ci si trova appunto nello studio di doppiaggio a dover affrontare un, un testo oppure un personaggio.
This is fundamental when you find yourself, in fact, in the dubbing studio and need to deal with a script or a character.
Captions 14-17, Arianna e Marika: Il lavoro di doppiatrice

The verb doppiare comes from the noun doppio. Its cognate is “double” in English. And sometimes it means just that, as in the following example, where it functions as an adjective. Note how the ending of the adjective changes according to the gender of the noun it modifies.

Ecco qua, doppia senape e doppio ketchup. -Bella schifezza.
Here you are, double mustard and double ketchup. -Nice bit of junk food.
Caption 7, Il Commissario Manara 1: Ep. 11 - Beato tra le donne - Part 12 of 12 

 

But more often than not, it means “twice,” as in the following example.

E per metterci magari anche il doppio del tempo.
And maybe it takes even twice as much time.
Caption 7, Marika spiega: Proverbi italiani - Part 2 of 2 

 

Italians use sdoppiare to mean “to duplicate, to copy” when referring to CDs or cassettes. It is the negation of doppiare, and means “to split” but it also means “to make something into two.”

Mi potresti sdoppiare questo CD?
Could you copy this CD for me?

 

Interestingly enough, the verb “to dub” comes from “double” and came into use in the nineteen twenties. We use the verb “to dub” to refer to replacing speech in a movie, but also to copy from one tape to another (sdoppiare).

 

As Arianna tells us, you can go to school to get professional training in dubbing. Apart from dubbing actual movies, producers need dubbers for corporate videos, voice-overs for documentaries, and voices for cartoon characters. It’s a career choice that doesn’t immediately come to mind, but one that will never become obsolete.

 

See this fascinating article in English about the practice of dubbing in Italian cinema.

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Food in Italy at Christmastime

If it's Natale — Christmas Day, lots of folks in Italy are at home getting ready for a big meal. Food is a priority, and taken very seriously.

 

Of course, Italy is famous for pasta, and so on Christmas, the dinner table for traditional Italians will often include lasagne al forno (baked lasagna). Here are some recipes in Italian:

Lasagne al forno lasagne verdi

 

You wouldn't want to eat lasagna every day, but it's hard to say no to. Even Luca Manara can't say no. Note that, as for other kinds of pasta, the plural is used: lasagne.

Ecco qua il miracolo di zia Caterina, le famose lasagne al forno per festeggiare l'ennesimo caso risolto brillantemente, ecco qua.
Here it is, Aunt Caterina's miracle, the famous baked lasagna to celebrate the umpteenth case solved brilliantly, here you are.
Caption 18 - 19, Il Commissario Manara 2: Ep. 1 - Matrimonio con delitto - Part 15

 

Tortellini in brodo (Tortellini in broth) is another favorite. See more about tortellini here.

Making homemade brodo (broth) is common in Italy, and is easy and worth it. If you’re not sure what to do with the rind from your parmigiano (parmesan cheese), well, just throw it in the pot with the other basic ingredients: various cuts of meat and bones, celery, parsley, carrots and onions. The parmigiano rinds add some great flavor.

Here’s a recipe for brodo, in Italian.

 

From the Yabla video series about the famous chef Gualtiero Marchesi, we can see how big a deal a simple broth can be. 

Nell'orazione funebre che Bocuse tenne per la morte di uno dei due fratelli Troisgros, ricordava ancora la preparazione del brodo. La preparazione del brodo è come la preparazione della pozione magica...
In the funeral oration that Bocuse gave for the death of one of the two  Troisgros brothers, he mentioned again the preparation of broth. The preparation of broth is like preparing a magic potion...
Captions 27 - 29, L'arte della cucina: I Luoghi del Mondo - Part 13 of 17

 

One thing that characterizes the winter season in Italy, is the overwhelming availability of agrumi (citrus fruit). People like to eat arance (oranges)mandarini (mandarin oranges),and clementini (clementines) or clementine (clementines). They are shipped to all other parts of Italy from Sicily and Calabria, and fill shops and homes with their fragrance.

 

In just about any bar, you can order una spremuta (freshly squeezed orange juice). It's best when oranges are in season. 

Per me una spremuta d'aranciagrazie.
For me a freshly squeezed orange juice, thanks.
Caption 41, Provaci Ancora Prof Stagione 1 Ep1: fiction - Part 11 of 28

 

In Italy, fruit is generally served at the end of a meal, and at Christmastime, there is usually also frutta secca (nuts and other dried fruits) in addition to panettone and other wonderful but caloric desserts. 

Here’s a link to a Yabla blog about the winter holidays in various parts of the world.

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The Historical Present Tense in Italian

In the English language, with some exceptions, history is told in the past. The historical present does exist, however. In English grammar, the historical present is the use of a verb phrase in the present tense to refer to an event that took place in the past. In narratives, the historical present may be used to create an effect of immediacy. It’s also called the historic present, dramatic present, and narrative present.

 

But in Italian and other romance languages the historical present is commonly used to recount events in the past, especially when referring to history.

 

Context is very important, and translating can present some challenges.

 

Here’s an example of how Italian uses the historical present for something that clearly happened in the past. In English, it would sound a bit strange in the present tense, and the first phrase would be well nigh impossible to express in the present tense.

Pitrè nasce nel milleottocentoquarantuno a Palermo, in una famiglia di pescatori.
Pitrè was born in eighteen hundred forty-one in Palermo, in a family of fishermen.
Il padre, un povero marinaio del rione di Santa Lucia, è costretto, come tanti, ad emigrare in America, dove muore di febbre gialla.
The father, a poor sailor from the Santa Lucia district, was forced, like many, to emigrate to America, where he died of yellow fever.
Captions 28-32, Dottor Pitrè: e le sue storie - Part 2 of 15 

 

In the documentary about Fascism currently available on Yabla, the historical present is used in several instances. Sometimes it makes sense to use it in English, too, as in the following example. By using the historical present, we set the scene. We seem to observe the events from close up, as they happen.

Sono gli anni delle campagne di stampa contro le parole straniere.
Parole straniere e borghesia sono mali da estirpare.

These are the years of the publishing campaigns against foreign words.
Foreign words and the bourgeoisie are evils to be rooted out.
Captions 5 - 6, Me Ne Frego: Il Fascismo e la lingua italiana - Part 5 of 15

 

La "Gazzetta del Popolo" di Torino inaugura la rubrica "Una parola al giorno".
Turin's “Gazzetta del Popolo” [The People's Gazette] launches the feature “Una Parola al Giorno” [A Word a Day].
Captions 14 - 15, Me Ne Frego: Il Fascismo e la lingua italiana - Part 5 of 15 

 

The use of the historical or narrative present in Italian is just something to be aware of. Deciding whether or not to maintain the same tense in translation is a subjective one, based on the tone to be set, or based on clarity. Much of the time, using the past tense in English will be preferred, but not always.

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What's the Story on Voi in the Singular?

English doesn’t make the distinction — as far as pronouns go — between familiar and polite forms, but many languages do.

 

In this week’s segment about how the Italian language was influenced by Italian fascism, we learn that Lei, the polite form of “you” (singular), was actually banned from the language by Mussolini, and that the form Voi was imposed. But what’s this all about?

 

Let’s clarify, right away, that voi with a lowercase “v” is the second person plural personal pronoun, that is, “you” plural. We use it all the time. What we’re discussing here, however, is the use of Voi — with a capital letter — as a second person singular, polite form. It uses the same conjugation as voi (you plural).

 

The story is a long, complicated, and fascinating one, but here are the basics.

 

In ancient Rome, people used only the familiar form, “tu” (which later became the Italian tu (you, singular).

 

At a certain point, around the year 300, the Latin “Vos” ("you" plural used as a singular) began to be used with important figures such as emperors, much the same way as the pluralismajestatis was used.

 

“Vos” then became Voi in Italian, and was commonly used from the 1200’s to the 1400’s for addressing artists, nobility, etc. Dante used tu and Voi. Later, in the Renaissance, with the return to studying the Greek and Roman classics, there was a tendency to go back to the “Roman” tu.

 

Also in the Renaissance, Lei began to be used in offices and courts as a polite form of address. Lei corresponds to the third person feminine singular (she/her). The words used for prominent figures, like Eccellenza (Excellence) and Maestà (Majesty) are feminine nouns, and so, this led to a feminine pronoun: LeiLei was used alongside Voi for centuries as a deferential form of address, with tu as a familiar and intimate one. Many consider that the use of Lei came into use following the model of the Spanish, whose presence was felt in Italy during the 16th Century.

 

So, though not actually foreign (but believed to be, at least, partially), Lei was banned by Mussolini as being a non-Italian word:

Imposizione del Voi.
The imposition of “Voi” ["you" singular, formal]
Parole straniere bandite e sostituite per legge.
Foreign words banned and replaced by law.
Captions 6 and 9, Me Ne Frego: Il Fascismo e la lingua italiana - Part 2 of 15 

 

Thus, Voi was revived and/or imposed all over Italy. After the fall of fascism, Voi fell into disuse in many parts of Italy, where it had not really had time to be assimilated.

 

In much of southern Italy, however, Voi, as a deferential form of address, had never gone out of fashion, as it had in the north. So, it simply remained, and to this day it’s still used as a sign of respect, especially in families: a nipotino (grandson) in speaking to his nonno (grandfather), for example.

 

If you are an adult and go on a trip to Naples, Sicily or other southern Italian destination, you may very well be addressed as Voi. This is a sign of respect.

 

Lei has entered Italian vocabulary and grammar books as the official personal pronoun for addressing someone formally. But since language is fluid and ever-changing — not by law and imposition, but by common use — this could change.

 

Thanks for reading, keep up the good work, and feel free to write to us at 
newsletter@yabla.com with your comments and questions.

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Locali, Locale, Locals

A note about Adriano and his Dublin videos. You may notice that in a recent installment, he uses the noun locali to mean “the locals.” It’s incorrect.

Questa scuola di cucina serve appunto per far conoscere a locali [sic: persone del posto] e a stranieri le tecniche, i segreti della cucina italiana.
This school serves, in fact, to acquaint locals and foreigners with the techniques, the secrets of Italian cooking.
Caption 22,  Adriano: Pizzeria Pinocchio - Part 1 of 2 

In Italian, un locale is a place. Adriano is using a “false friend” that made its way into his brain without his even realizing it, perhaps. This can happen very easily when we spend time in a foreign country. We make a huge effort to learn the language of the place, we even start thinking in that language, and then all of a sudden we have to speak our native language there in the foreign country. It’s easy to get a little mixed up sometimes. Living in a foreign country encourages us to become somewhat multilingual, using the word that seems the most appropriate at the moment, in whichever language. Since there is no good, single Italian word for “the locals,” Adriano just grabbed the first word that sounded right, treating it as an Italianword, making the plural with an i. If you speak English, you understand it. Just remember: it’s not correct Italian. 

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Extra Reading References

There are times and situations in which reading is the thing to do.

 

Oppure potete semplicemente sdraiarvi sull'erba, prendere il sole e leggere un buon libro.
Or else you can simply lie on the grass, sunbathe, and read a good book.
Captions  22 - 23, Anna presenta: Villa Borghese - Part 2 of 2

 

Here are a few ideas to feed your Italian language curiosity.

 

Una parola al giorno (One word a day)

This is a great website for learning new words in Italian, or for getting explanations about words you have heard or read, and maybe even used, but would like to know more about.

The explanations are in Italian, so it’s mostly for more advanced learners. You can always consult an English language tool as well such as Google, or go straight to WordReference if the Italian is too difficult. By subscribing to Una parola al giorno, you’ll receive a new word every day in your inbox. It may be a word you don’t care about, and you can just send it to the trash, but there will be plenty of useful words, too. It’s free, and you can unsubscribe any time.

Do you like to read? 

Sometimes it’s fun to learn new words and expressions in Italian within the context of a book or story in English set in Italy. Both of the following authors pepper their writings with Italian words and phrases. It’s a great opportunity to discover when, where, and how to use them. It also gives you some inside information about Italian culture.

Tim Parks is a British author who has lived in Verona, Italy for many years. He worked as a translator and taught translating skills at Italian universities, as well as being a successful novelist. His books about Italy provide some well-written and humorous insight into Italy, Italians, and the Italian language.

Below are his non-fiction books about Italy.

Italian Neighbours, 1992. Relates how the author and his wife came to a small town near Verona and how they integrate and become accustomed to the unusual habits of their newfound neighbours. ISBN 0099286955

An Italian Education, 1996. Follow up to Italian Neighbours and recounts the milestones in the life of the author's children as they progress through the Italian school system. ISBN 0099286963

Italian Ways, on and off the rails from Milan to Palermo 2013 This is all about the railway system in Italy, and how the author travelled the length of the “boot” to discover its ins and outs.

Donna Leon has written a long series of mysteries set in Venice. She lived in Venice for many years, so her descriptions are quite true-to-life.

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La vita quotidiana (daily life)

In a recent video, Marika shows us the balcony of her apartment in Rome, so let’s talk about a couple of details concerning Italian life that come to the fore as she takes us around.

 

Il bucato (the laundry):

In the United States, there are laundry rooms in the basement of a house or apartment building, but this is rare in Italy. People have their own washing machines, usually in the kitchen, bathroom, or on the balcony.

Quando ho finito di usare la lavatrice e devo stendere i miei panni, userò lo stendibiancheria, che è questo.
When I've finished using my washing machine and I need to hang out my laundry, I'll use the drying rack, which is this one.
Captions 39-40, Marika spiega: Il balcone

Some people have dryers but most ordinary people don’t. That’s why Marika talks about the drying racks. You buy the one that suits the space you have. The weather is usually such that you can dry your clothes outside. Occasionally, you do need to put the drying racks inside because of inclement weather, or you can place a plastic tarp over the rack to keep the rain out. There are laundromats in town, so if the weather is too bad, you can dry your clothes at the laundromat. Laundry in Italy is something that takes a little thought and planning. Electricity costs less at night, on weekends, and on holidays, so people who want to save do their laundry on the weekend, or at night. Newer washing machines have timers so you can schedule the wash to start at an appropriate time.  A load of wash takes a lot longer to finish than you may be used to. It’s not unusual for a cycle to take an hour and a half.

 

La raccolta differenziata (recycling):

We say “recycling” but actually, what raccolta differenziata (differentiated collection) actually means is separating our garbage into different types to be collected, thus the term “differentiated.” It’s  a bit tricky for people who live in apartments.

Per fortuna anche qui, come in tanti posti del mondo, si fa la raccolta differenziata.
Luckily, here too, as in many places in the world, we do recycling.
Caption 16, Marika spiegaIl balcone

All the wrappers for food and other materials, usually made of plastic, but also including Tetra Paks and cans, go in one bin. Paper and cardboard go in another, glass in another, and most importantly, the wet stuff, usually food waste, goes in a separate container. What cannot be recycled in any way goes into the general, mixed garbage, or indifferenziata. We are encouraged to keep this type of waste to a bare minimum. Separating the different kinds of waste makes it much easier for the sanitation department workers to go through it and sort it further. Appropriate material will then be actually recycled. People who live outside the city, and have enough space, can get a bio-composter (usually free of charge) so they can recycle their own food and gardening refuse

The European Parliament has set goals for reducing waste as far as possible. The method that has had the most success is what is called porta a porta (door to door) collection. Every day, a different kind of waste is picked up. At the outset, it costs more, but as it takes hold, people can actually save money.

 

Zanzariere (mosquito screens):

In the United States, most houses have screen doors and screens on the windows, but in Italy, this is a relatively recent phenomenon. There are all kinds of solutions, from screen curtains with magnets or velcro, to mosquito nets, to proper screens fitted into the windows and doors. They are usually the type that can be easily raised and lowered so people can air their bedspreads and pillows, and shake out their rugs, rags and dust mops from the windows.

Questa alle mie spalle si chiama zanzariera e serve per proteggermi dagli insetti.
This, behind me, is called mosquito netting [screen] and serves to protect me from insects.
Captions 5-6, Marika spiega: Il balcone

If you travel to Italy in the summer, it can be wise to make sure the hotel or Bed and Breakfast you are staying in has screens on the windows and French doors. It may not be a given.
 

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When O's Become U's - Welcome to Sicily

One of Yabla’s current offerings is about Sicily. The Giuseppe Pitrè videos are peppered with phrases in the Sicilian dialect. As a matter of fact, although we call it a dialect, it’s actually a language all its own.

 

The Italian State was born only in 1861. Textbooks began being uniformly published in the Italian language as late as 1928.  Before that, different regions in what later became Italy had wildly different ways of expressing themselves, and in many cases still do.

 

Even now there are still plenty of people, mostly pensionati (retirees) by now, who have had only minimal schooling and never learned Italian, let alone to read and write. If they had children, the children became bilingual in order to both go to school and be able to communicate with their parents. So these languages are still alive, thanks also to folk traditions of theater and poetry, such as the ones described in the above-mentioned videos.

 

When you’re learning the language, it's hard enough to follow someone speaking Italian, let alone someone speaking in dialect, as in the Pitrè videos. Remember, though: You don’t need to actually learn Sicilian or any other regional language. But being in the know about some of a dialect's characteristics can enable you to enjoy the differences (and understand something) rather than being overwhelmed by them. Italy's linguistic diversity is part of what makes the country so interesting.

 

From these Pitrè videos, you’ll notice for example, that the “o” in Italian often becomes “u” in Sicilian. The “e” often  becomes “ie.”

Signuri mei, vi cuntu di Giufà [Signori miei, vi racconto di Giufà],
ca una ni pienza e milli ni fa [che una ne pensa e mille ne fa].

My gentlemen, I'll tell you about Giufà,
who thinks of one thing and does a thousand of them.

Vai Giuseppe, curri [corri]Curri [corri], fratello!
Go, Giuseppe, runHurry up, brother!
Caption 51, Dottor Pitrè: e le sue storie - Part 2 of 15

In the examples above, the pronunciation is decidedly different, but the words are the same as or similar to Italian.

 

Sometimes, though, vocabulary changes completely, or almost completely. One Sicilian word that comes to mind is picciotto (young man or boy). Just picking out that one word (and variants of it) can allow you to feel like you're in the know.

E ddu picciotto, un avennu né piccioli pi manciari, ci rissi [E quel ragazzo, non avendo nemmeno soldi per mangiare, gli disse]:
And that boy, not even having money for food, told him,
Se, cietto ca mi vogghiu mettiri in 'sta scummissa [Sì, certo che voglio fare questa scommessa]!
“Yes, of course, I want to make a bet!”
Captions 39-41, Dottor Pitrè: e le sue storie - Part 4 of 15

When the boy speaks, you’ll notice that, as mentioned above, the “e” in certo (of course) becomes “ie.” In addition, the “r” disappears altogether and it becomes cietto.

The more you listen to Italians speaking, the more you'll notice regional differences in pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax, as well as in general inflection. It can be fun to guess where someone is from!

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The Trentino-Alto Adige region

Get some history and general information about the Trentino-Alto Adige Südtirol region of Italy here.
 
But let’s take a closer look at the name itself: Trentino-Alto Adige.
 
The Alto Adige part of the name refers to the upper part of the Adige River that runs from the Alps through the Trentino-Alto Adige region and on to the Veneto region to empty out into the Adriatic Sea just south of Venezia and Chioggia. The Adige is the second longest river in Italy after the Po River, and it is this river valley that accommodates a good part of the the tollroad autostrada A22 that runs from the Italian-Austrian border at the Brenner Pass to Modena, as well as the railroad that follows a similar route. And so when travelling to and from Italy by way of the Brenner Pass, the river is visible for a good number of kilometers.

Trentino refers to the province of Trento (Trent), one of the two provinces of the region. Trento is a beautiful medieval city with a marvelous castle (Il Castello del Buonconsiglio), and was the seat of the famous Council of Trent in the 16th century.
 
Trentin-Südtirol is the German language name for the region, with its German speaking province and main city, Bozen/Bolzano.
 
When travelling north from Modena, Verona, and Trento towards Innsbruck, Austria, whether by car or by train, the names on the signs start to appear in two languages, Italian and German. The mountains get higher, the temperatures a bit cooler. The views are breathtaking.
 
It is great wine country, and on both sides of the river and of the autostrada, there are vineyards carpeting every inch, except for when there are apple orchards. Most of the apples produced in Italy come from this region.

There is also a bike path that goes along the Adige river, through the vineyards, for about 60 kilometers between Trento and Bolzano.
  
Buon viaggio!

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Tris di Assaggi (Three Tidbits)

In a previous episode of the series on food, Gianni Mura talked about trends in restaurant dining. He talked about what quickly caught on as a popular way of getting a little taste of everything. Instead of a primo (first course), secondo (main dish), contorno (side dish), and dolce (dessert), a restaurant would offer a tris di assaggi (three "tastes," or miniature servings) of primi piatti (first courses). This became, and still is, a great way for tourists, or anyone else, to find out what they like. Depending on what's offered, and on the kind of restaurant, the three servings may arrive all on the same plate at the same time, or on separate plates, one after the other. 

At the end of concerts, audiences ask for an encore. In Italian, this is called a bis. It comes from the Latin for "twice." It has come to mean "again" or "more" in a concert setting, where people want to hear a piece played a second time, or something extra once the programmed performance is over. If you're dining with friends at home, and would like another helping, you can use bis:

Posso fare il bis?
Can I have a second helping?

In rare cases you can ask for a bis in a restaurant, but usually in a restaurant setting, bis will indicate two small servings of two different dishes, rather than one normal one. Likewise, a tris (coming from the Latin for "three times") denotes three small servings of a dish rather than one normal serving.

Now that you know what tris means, here's a tris of tidbits about Italian.

1) Past meaning present

In some cases Italian uses il passato prossimo (constructed like the English present perfect) to express an idea that in English would use the present tense. Here's an example. Luca is telling the doctor that Lara will promise to take care of him. She hesitates but then agrees. She uses the past participle of promettere (to promise) rather than the present tense, as we would in English.

Promette, promette... -Eh... sì! Promesso.
She promises, she promises... -Uh... yes! I promise.
Caption 33, Il Commissario Manara 1: Sogni di Vetro 

Capire (to understand) is another word that often gets used in its passato prossimotense to mean what we think of as being in the present. 

Ho capito, ma adesso, qua in mezzo alla campagna con le mucche, che facciamo?
I get it, but now, here in the middle of the countryside with the cows, what are we going to do?
Caption 8, Francesca: alla guida - Part 3 of 4

As a question tag, the person and auxiliary verb are often left out:

Ma te non ti devi preoccupare, capito?
But you're not to worry, you understand?
Caption 38, Il Commissario Manara 1: Le Lettere Di Leopardi - Ep 4 - Part 15

Ho capito (I understand [literally "I've understood"]) is what you commonly say to let someone know you're listening, much like "I see," "I get it," or even "uh huh." 

 

2) A common modo di dire

E poi eravamo in giro tutte le notti.
And then, we were out and about every night.
Caption 2, L'arte della cucina: La Prima Identità - Part 8 of 17

In giro is a very general way to say "out" or "around," when you ask or say where someone is, or where someone has gone. There are many ways to use this expression, so check it out here.

 

3) Hidden vowels and silent consonants

 

In an online video lesson, Marika talks some more about object pronouns, this time with the participio passato (past participle). One important thing that can be difficult to grasp is that when the pronoun is used, the object (in the form of a pronoun) comes first. Let's look at this example.

Hai guardato il film?
Did you watch the movie?
Sì, l'ho guardato.
Yes, I watched it.
Captions 15-16, Marika spiega: Pronomi diretti con participio passato

We also need to remember that the "h" in ho is silent. L'ho sounds like "lo," but the apostrophe is there to tell us that it's really lo (it) ho (I have). We have "l" + silent  "o" + silent "h" + "o."

 

One extra tidbit concerning the passato prossimo: While constructed like the present perfect, it often translates with the English simple past tense, just as in the above example. 

 

That's it for the tris!

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Cops: Carabinieri, Vigili, or Poliziotti?

This week Yabla features an interview with a poliziotto (policeman). Nicola gives us some insight into what it really means to be a policeman. 

Sono un agente di Polizia da ventitré anni.
I've been a police officer for twenty-three years.
Caption 1, Nicola Agliastro: Poliziotto

 

But what brand of policeman is he? In Italy there are different categories of police, with different roles, rules, and uniforms.

 

Judging from the sign at the Commissariato (police headquarters) at the beginning of the video, Nicola appears to be part of the Polizia di Stato (state [national] police), which is the main, national police force. They are responsible for patrolling the autostrade (highways), ferrovie (railways), aeroporti (airports), and la dogana (customs). Their vehicles are blue and white (see thumbnail of video).

 

If you subscribe to Yabla, you’re quite familiar by now with La Polizia di Stato, since the popular series Commissario Manara takes place in that environment (in fact, there's a new segment this week!). 

 

Luca and Lara are usually in borghese (plainclothes), and wear their uniforms only on special occasions. At first glance Luca Manara doesn't quite look the part, and Ginevra, the medico legale (coroner), who doesn't look the part any more so, comments:

Tu devi essere il nuovo commissario, però non ne hai l'aspetto.
You must be the new Commissioner, but you don't look like one.
Caption 43, Il Commissario Manara: Un delitto perfetto - Ep 1 - Part 2

 

La polizia municipale (local police force) on the other hand, works at a local level and is responsible primarily for traffic control, but also for enforcing national, regional, and local laws regarding commerce, legal residence, pets, and other administrative duties. The officers of the municipal police aren’t automatically authorized to carry weapons, since public safety is generally relegated to the Polizia di Stato. The municipal forces may be called polizia comunale (community police), polizia urbana (town police), or polizia locale (local police). They’re commonly called vigili urbani (town guards), but the correct nomenclature is agenti di polizia locale. Their vehicles depend on local tastes and traditions, and differ from town to town, and from region to region.

 

If you’re in Italy and you lose your wallet, or something gets stolen, you go to the Carabinieri to report the theft or the loss. They file a report, and make it official. When you’re driving, the Carabinieri may have you pull over for a routine checking of license, registration, and proof of insurance. If you have reason to believe there is a crime being committed, call the Carabinieri.

 

The police emergency number is 113, equivalent to 911 in the United States.

 

Here’s hoping you never need it!

 

Another important police force is la Guardia di Finanza (financial guard). The Guardia di Finanza deals primarily with financial crime and smuggling, and is the primary agency for suppressing illicit drug trade. They work on land, sea, and in the air. These are the agents who might ask you to produce a scontrino (receipt) upon exiting a shop, restaurant, or bar. The customer, since 2003, no longer incurs a fine, but it’s still good practice to hang on to your receipt until well away from the place of business.

 

These agents wear grayish green uniforms with the insignia of a yellow flame on the shoulder. Because of this, they are sometimes called le fiamme gialle (the yellow flames).

 

Whichever kind of policemen you see around, be they carabinierivigiliagenti di polizia localepoliziotti, or fiamme gialle, remember they're there primarily to help, not to give you trouble.

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Chiuso per Ferie: The Slowest Week of the Year

Ferragosto (August 15th) is one of the most important and respected holidays of the year in Italy. It's also a religious holiday, the Feast of the Assumption, a very important holiday for Catholic countries like Italy, and so there's something for everyone: beach, barbecues, religious processions, fireworks, horse races—you name it.

In recent years, things have changed somewhat. Lately, people have had less money to spend on long vacations, and laws have changed, allowing stores to stay open on holidays, so there's a bit more city life than there used to be. Still, Ferragosto is not when you want to get a flat tire (forare), or a toothache (mal di denti).

Le strade sono deserte, le serrande sono chiuse (streets are deserted, stores are shuttered). You'll see signs on those closed serrande saying chiuso per ferie (closed for vacation). Ferragosto is also one of the hottest holidays, full of sun and blue skies. People want to be at the seaside.

In a video about the culinary arts, an art critic mentions gli anni di piombo (the years of lead), the sad and scary seventies when terrorism was an everyday reality in Italy, and there was gunsmoke in the air. He gives us this image of Milan:

Sembrava che la nebbia ci fosse anche a Ferragosto.
It seemed as though there was fog even at Ferragosto (national holiday on August 15th).
Caption 20, L'arte della cucina: L'Epoca delle Piccole Rivoluzioni - Part 5 of 16

Luckily, these days Ferragosto is much calmer. In fact, Ferragosto (which can also refer to the days around the 15th of August) is the time of the year in Italy when it's hard to get certain things done because so many shops and services are chiusi per ferie. Small commissioni (errands, tasks) can get complicated, such as:

comprare il pane (buying bread)
portare la macchina all'elettrauto (taking the car to the auto electrician)
farsi i capelli dal parrucchiere (getting your hair done at the hairdresser's)
mangiare al tuo ristorante preferito (eating at your favorite restaurant)
andare in palestra (going to the gym) 
comprare l'aspirina per quel mal di testa (buying aspirin for that headache)
pagare l'assicurazione sulla macchina (paying your car insurance)
prendere un appuntamento col dentista (making a appointment with the dentist)
spedire un pacchetto alla posta (mailing a package at the post office)
chiamare un corriere (calling a delivery service)
fare riparare la lavatrice (getting your washing machine repaired)

Italians worry about what supermarkets might or might not be open on and around Ferragosto, and they stock up on acqua minerale (bottled mineral water), birra (beer),salumi (cold cuts), carbonella (charcoal), crema solare (sunblock), and molto ancora (lots more) before heading for il mare (the seaside).

Before wishing you buone ferie, a quick reminder about le ferie. It's a noun, always used in the plural to indicate time off, leave, or vacation.

If you've kept up with Commissario Manara, you'll know how thrilled he was to finally have some ferie (time off), but invece (instead) he had to stay put and solve a crime.

Ho dovuto sudare sette camice, ma alla fine la tua settimana di ferie eccola qua.
I had to sweat seven shirts [sweat buckets], but in the end, your week of vacation, here it is.
Captions 15-16, Commissario Manara: Reazione a Catena - Ep 6 - Part 1 of 14

It's very easy to confuse the meaning of the adjective feriale, which refers to just the opposite situation. Giorni feriali (workdays) include Saturdays, but not giorni festivi (Sundays and holidays). These terms are very important when you're parking your macchina (car) in order to avoid getting una multa (a fine or ticket).

So whether you're spending your ferie (time off) a casa (at home) or going in vacanza(on vacation) someplace exciting, or even if you're working, here's hoping you can relax and enjoy the rest of the summer.

Yabla non è chiuso per ferie! (Yabla is not closed for vacation!)

Just for fun:

Here are some visuals to help you get a feel for the Ferragosto spirit:

Chiuso per ferie                         

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Pizza al taglio, aperitivi, and stuzzichini

Italy is known for its three-course lunches and dinners, but in most cities and towns, there’ll be a more casual type of place where you can get take out, eat at a little table, or mangiare in piedi (eat standing up). 

Pizza al taglio (pizza by the slice) is very popular all over Italy, especially in Rome. As Anna explains, prices vary according to size and what’s on the pizza.

Tu scegli il pezzo di pizza, viene pesato, a seconda del tipo di pizza. Ha un prezzo diverso al chilo, e paghi a seconda della grandezza e del peso di pizza che hai scelto.

You choose the piece of pizza, it's weighed, depending on the kind of pizza. It has a varying price per kilo, and you pay depending on the size and the weight of the pizza you've chosen.

Captions 69-72, Anna e Marika: Pizza al taglio romana - Part 1 of 2

You can certainly find pizza al taglio in Tuscany, but in addition, and baked in the same oven, you’ll often see la cecina, made from farina di ceci (chickpea flour). Learn more here. Liguria and Tuscany, as well as Puglia have focaccia, in some areas called schiacciata, which is made with flour, water, oil and yeast, like pizza, and often takes the place of bread. You’ll find it in bakeries, bars, and pizzerie. As a quick snack, Romagna has the piadina, a flat bread made with lard rather than olive oil, which gets filled with cured meats or cheese. Learn more here.

A way for people to get together socially, without having to spend lots of money on dinner, is to have drinks before they go home for dinner: fare or prendere l’aperitivo (to have an aperitif). As we’ll see, aperitivo has different sfumature (shades of meaning).

Prima di andare a cena, quindi verso le sei o le sette, gli italiani fanno un aperitivo.

Before going to have dinner, so, around six or seven o'clock, Italians have cocktails.

Captions 1-2, Corso di italiano con Daniela: L'aperitivo

Adriano, in describing his day, includes an aperitivo, at least on the weekend.

Mi rilasso e mi sfogo con gli amici dopo una lunga giornata di lavoro.

Mi concedo qualche aperitivo e poi anche qualche cocktail alcolico.

I relax and I let off steam with my friends after a long day of work.

I allow myself some aperitifs and then also a few cocktails.

Captions 44-46, Adriano: Giornata

It’s pretty clear that Adriano considers aperitivo in its broader sense, and he uses qualche aperitivo here to mean a few appetizers. For an explanation of how to use qualche, see this previous lesson. For the drink itself, Adriano uses "cocktail.” As with most English words integrated into the Italian language, "cocktail" will remain in the singular no matter how many he has.

 While the aperitivo, usually served with patatine (potato chips) or olive (olives), is an established ritual in most parts of Italy, one of the latest trends is the apericena. If you combine aperitivo (drinks) with cena (dinner), you get apericena. What is it? It’s drinks and appetizers, both savory and sweet, that are varied and abundant enough to replace dinner, served buffet style. The apericena exists both in bars about town, offering an alternative to a costly tab in a restaurant, and in homes, making for a relatively low-budget, flexible, and fashionable alternative to a sit-down dinner. It encourages mingling, conversation, and allows for guests to just stop by. These light buffet dinners are becoming more and more popular all over Italy.

All over the world there's a tendency to take foreign words and knowingly or unknowingly give them a meaning different from the original. So, be aware that in bars, the apericena or the aperitivo (depending on how much there is to eat) is sometimes called a “happy hour,” which in Italy is not about discounts on drinks as in the United States, but rather having drinks accompanied by a small buffet of stuzzichini (appetizers) for a fixed, though variable, price. More about the Italian happy hour here. The word for “toothpick” in Italian is stuzzicadenti. Little bite-size appetizers are often served with toothpicks, thus the term stuzzichini. If you travel to Venice, you'll want to check out the Venetian version of stuzzichini: cicchetti.

Learn more here. This is an important tip, given that it’s quite a challenge finding good food at reasonable prices in Venezia.

Buon appetito!

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Being Polite With "Dare del Lei"

As we saw in a previous lesson, Italians are very conscious of formal and informal greetings, and will say hello in different ways depending on the situation. But there’s more. When speaking or writing to someone they must, or want, to treat with respect, they’ll use the polite form of “you”—Lei. This happens to be identical to the word for “she,” lei. For a fascinating explanation, see this article and its continuation here. To show respect, Lei gets capitalized, together with its possessive pronouns Sua, Sue, Suoi (your, yours) and its object pronouns La and Le (you). Although the capitalization of these pronouns is going out of style, it can be helpful for figuring out who is being talked about. Using the formal “you” is called dare del Lei (giving the formal “you”). The opposite is called dare del tu (giving the informal “you”).  

In Ma Che Ci Faccio Qui (But What Am I Doing Here?), Alessio finds himself in an embarrassing situation. (Yes, he’s about to fare brutta figura!) Things have gotten decidedly intimo, but Alessio da ancora del Lei (is still giving the formal “you”) to this woman, and she calls him out on it.

Ma che fai, mi dai ancora del Lei?

What are you doing, you still address me formally?

Caption 22, Ma Che Ci Faccio Qui: Un film di Francesco Amato - Part 13 of 23

In an episode of Commissario Manara, Lara is trying to get some information from a woman in shock over the death of her employer. Lara uses Lei since she is addressing someone older than her, and whom she doesn’t know. Lara sees the woman is touchy on the subject at hand so she immediately apologizes, even though she’s done nothing wrong.

When the personal pronoun is an object, either direct or indirect, it can become part of the verb, as we’ve talked about in a previous lesson. In the example below, the polite “you” is a direct object of the verb offendere (to offend), and becomes part of it (with a respectful capital letter in this case).

Mi scusi, non volevo offenderLa.

I'm sorry, I didn't want to offend you.

Caption 39, Il Commissario Manara: Le Lettere Di Leopardi - Ep 4 - Part 2 of 17

In another episode, Luca Manara is being polite to his boss, but only on the surface. In this case, the indirect object pronoun is part of the compound verb, riferire a (to report to).

Ma, come purtroppo Lei mi ricorda, io devo riferirLe tutto, no?

But, as you unfortunately remind me, I have to report everything to you, don't I?

Caption 19, Il Commissario Manara:  Vendemmia tardiva - Ep 2 - Part 17 of 17    

In the concluding segment of “Vendemmia tardiva,” la zia, as usual, uses her powers of conversazione and intuizione femminile to help solve the crime:

Avevo capito che, in tutti questi anni, è stata innamorata di lui. E per trent'anni gli ha dato del Lei, ma ti rendi conto?

I'd figured out that, for all these years, she'd been in love with him. And for thirty years she addressed him formally, can you imagine that?

Captions 4-5, Il Commissario Manara: Vendemmia tardiva - Ep 2 - Part 17 of 17

Dare del tu (to address informally) or dare del Lei (to address formally) is an important aspect to settle in a new relationship. A common question to ask is: ci possiamo dare del tu? (can we give each other the informal "you?") or, ci diamo del tu? (shall we give each other the informal “you?”). The answer is almost always: sì, certo!

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Frizzante o Naturale?

When visiting a foreign country like Italy, there can be challenges to something as simple as asking for a un bicchiere d’acqua (a glass of water)! In fact, as Anna and Marika mention while enjoying a meal in a famous Roman restaurant, one of the first things the cameriere (waiter) will ask you is what you want to drink. 

Il cameriere è venuto e ci ha portato dell'acqua naturale.

The waiter came and he brought us still water.

Ci ha prima chiesto se volevamo acqua gassata o naturale e noi abbiamo scelto naturale.

First he asked us if we wanted fizzy water or still and we chose still.

Captions 12-13, Anna e Marika: Trattoria Al Biondo Tevere - Part 1 of 3

Water is not served automatically, nor is it free unless you specifically ask for acqua del rubinetto (tap water). Italians commonly drink acqua minerale (mineral water, or sometimes simply bottled water) al ristorante (at a restaurant), and will choose either acqua gassata (fizzy water), or acqua naturale (plain or still mineral water). If you ask for ghiaccio (ice), they may give you funny look, but you can ask for your acqua fredda (cold) or a temperatura ambiente (at room temperature).

One of the last things you’ll do after a meal in a restaurant is ask for il conto (the bill). Sometimes, as might be the case with Marika and Anna, you decide to pay alla romana (Roman style) where the bill is divided equally among the number of people dining, regardless of what each person had to eat. But if you do want to pay, you can tell the friend who's taking his wallet out to leave it where it is. Stai buono/a. You’re saying, “be good” but you mean “stay as you are!”  

Learning suggestion: Keep on the lookout for the verb stare (to be situated, to stay, to be) as you watch Yabla videos. It’s closely related to essere (to be) but implies a position or condition. Do a Yabla video search of both stare and stai to get a feel for when and how it’s used. 

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Stay Warm and Dream of Beaches

For those living in the northern hemisphere, December can be a good time to turn to indoor activities like learning or perfecting a second language. If it’s cold and dark outside, it might be nice to make yourself a nice cup of tea or cioccolata calda (hot chocolate) and view some of the new videos at Yabla!

With all this cold weather, Francesca must be daydreaming about warmer times. She shared with us how wonderful the beach can be in September: 

Oggi ho deciso di passare una giornata diversa dal solito e quindi sono venuta al mare.

Today I've decided to spend the day differently from usual and so I've come to the beach.

Captions 1-2, Francesca - sulla spiaggia - Part 1 of 3 

When talking about the beach in general, il mare (“the sea” or “the seaside”) is the right word to use, but once there, or when talking about the quality of the beach itself (sandy, pebbly, crowded, empty, etc.), use la spiaggia (the beach). Francesca explains that she chose to go to the beach in September to avoid "la calca": the summer crowd. 

La calca, in Italia, significa una folla esagerata, molta, molta gente, che si può trovare in queste spiagge.

La calca, in Italy, means an exaggerated crowd, lots and lots of people, that can be found on these beaches.

Captions 24-25, Francesca - sulla spiaggia - Part 1 of 3

In Italia much of the coastline consists of private beach clubs that provide bars, restaurants, changing rooms, showers, and restrooms. Bagno is used to indicate a beach club or bathing establishment, for example, "Bagno Italia." Fare il bagno (“to go swimming” or “to go in the water”) is one thing you might do there. But be careful; bagno can also mean lavatory! Public (free) beaches (spiaggie libere) exist but tend to be small and hard to find. Francesca is at a typical Italian beach club where it is customary to rent a beach umbrella (ombrellone) and beach chair (sdraio) or cot (lettino). She has to go and pay first alla cassa (at the counter). 

Va bene. Allora vado alla cassa. -Sì, sì, la cassa, sì.

All right. So, I'll go to the counter. -Yes, yes, the counter, yes.

Caption 11, Francesca - sulla spiaggia - Part 1 of 3

La cassa is used to indicate the place where you pay for something, whether it’s a cash register, ticket window, or checkout counter. 

To inspire your warm weather reverie, and to reinforce your vocabulary on the subject, have a look at these Yabla videos:

Antonio: e il Lido Costa Blu

Antonio takes us to a beautiful seaside resort at Praia a Mare in Calabria on the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Adriano: a Mondello

Adriano tells us about the splendid beach at Mondello near Palermo in Sicily.

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