One thing that's always tricky when learning a new language is how to use prepositions. We are especially aware of this when we hear Italians speaking English, since they often get prepositions mixed up.
In your own language you rarely get it wrong. You just know.
What's confusing for English speakers learning Italian, is that in can translate as different prepositions depending on the situation.
Lots of times in means "in."
Buongiorno. Oggi siamo in Toscana.
Hello. Today we're in Tuscany.
Caption 1, In cucina con Arianna la panzanella - Part 1Play Caption
OK. "We're in Tuscany - Siamo in Toscana. That's easy, but look at the title of the video. In cucina. In Italian, there is no article in this case, but in English there is.
Dov'è Arianna (where is Arianna)?
È in cucina (she's in the kitchen).
The kitchen is a place in the house. The same goes for lots of other places.
The following example uses in zona, a great way to say "in the area." You might ask someone on the phone it they are in zona. Then you can meet up! Zone - zona is a nice true cognate, even though we will translate it as "area" in many cases.
Siamo nati qui in zona, in un paese qui vicino di Praia a Mare.
We were born in this area, in the nearby village of Praia a Mare.
Captions 3-4, Gente al Porto di MarateaPlay Caption
We also use in to mean "in" when talking about the seasons:
Probabilmente preferirei una bella vacanza in montagna, allora. Un po' d'aria fresca, i boschi, i ruscelli. -Eh be', qualcosa della montagna piace anche a me. Ad esempio, in autunno, andare a prendere i funghi.
I'd probably rather have a nice vacation in the mountains, then. A bit of fresh air, the woods, streams. -Oh well, I like some things about the mountains too. For example, in autumn, going to get mushrooms.
Captions 21-24, Escursione Un picnic in campagna - Part 2Play Caption
We can also note from the previous example that to talk about going on vacation in the mountains, Italians not only leave out the article, they use the singular: "mountain" — montagna. Also, not in the example, Italians use in vacanza to mean "on vacation." They could also say in ferie to mean the same thing.
Andiamo in vacanza la settimana prossima.
Were going on vacation next week.
Lavora in banca (he works at the bank).
Sono in spiaggia (I'm on the sand by the waterfront)
In can mean "by" when we are talking about a means of transportation:
A Parigi ci vai in treno o in aereo (are you going to Paris by train or by plane)?
Vado al lavoro in bici (I go to work by bike) ma quando piove vado in macchina (but when it rains I go by car).
This is where it gets tricky because Italians use in when they are going someplace but they use the same preposition when they are already there!
Devo andare in banca (I have to go to the bank).
Non posso parlare al telefono perché sono in banca (I can't talk on the phone because I'm at the bank).
Le donne anziane del villaggio vanno in chiesa tutte le sere (the elderly women of the village go to church every evening).
Quando sono in chiesa, mi copro le spalle (when I am in a church, I cover my shoulders).
All the cases above have in common the absence of an article between the preposition in and the noun following it. They mostly have to do with places, seasons, or means of transportation.
But sometimes we do need need an article, for example:
in un attimo (in an instant)
When we have an indefinite article following in, both the preposition in (in, at, by, to) and the indefinite article un or una (a) stay separate and intact.
However when in is followed by a definite article in the singular or plural, the in gets combined with the article as follows:
(in + il) nel
(in + lo) nello
(in + l') nell'
(in + la) nella
(in + i) nei
(in + le) nelle
Ciao ragazzi e benvenuti nella mia cucina.
Hi guys and welcome to my kitchen.
Caption 1, Adriano Pasta alla carbonara - Part 1Play Caption
These prepositions merit a lesson of their own, so stay tuned!