As we mentioned in part one, the first thing we need to consider about adjectives is: Which type of adjective is it? Positive or neutral?
We said that there are two basic types: aggettivi positivi (positive adjectives) that end in o in their masculine singular form, and aggettivi neutri (neutral adjectives) that end in e in their masculine (and feminine) singular form. When you look up an adjective in the dictionary you will see the singular, masculine form of the adjective.
This lesson will discuss the second type of adjective: the aggettivo neutro
(neutral adjective). Neutral adjectives only change according to number (singular or plural). They do not change according to gender. To refresh your memory about positive adjectives, those ending in "o," see the first part of this lesson
Adjectives that end in "e" are trickier in one sense, but easier in another. Indeed, with adjectives that end in "e" we don't have to concern ourselves with gender, just number. We have only two types of endings: one for the singular (e), and one for the plural (i).
Masculine/feminine + singular = e.
• Il mare è grande (the sea is big).
• La casa è grande (the house is big).
Il talento è un dono enorme. Il talento è... è un dovere morale coltivarlo.
Talent is an enormous gift. Talent is... it's a moral duty to cultivate it.
Captions 75-76, Adriano Olivetti - La forza di un sogno Ep. 1 Play Caption
Piazza del Popolo è una piazza molto importante di Roma.
Piazza del Popolo is a very important square of Rome.
Caption 1, Anna presenta - Piazza del Popolo Play Caption
Masculine/feminine + plural = i.
• I ragazzi sono tristi. (the boys are sad).
• Le ragazze sono tristi. (the girls are sad).
...e che invece adesso è una delle parti più eleganti,
...and which now though, is one of the most elegant,
più signorili della capitale, dove ci sono le case più belle.
most exclusive parts of the capital, where there are the most beautiful houses.
Captions 4-5, Anna presenta - il ghetto ebraico e piazza mattei Play Caption
What are some other common Italian adjectives ending in "e?"
• forte (strong, loud)
• verde (green)
• giovane (young)
• triste (sad)
• intelligente (intelligent)
• gentile (nice)
• semplice (easy, simple)
• facile (easy)
• felice (happy)
• importante (important)
• interessante (interesting)
• dolce (sweet)
• normale (normal)
• pesante (heavy)
• naturale (natural)
• elegante (elegant)
Some learners and non-native speakers have trouble using the common Italian adjectives in this second group, especially when using the plural. These need a bit more practice and consideration. The good news is that some of these common adjectives are similar to their English counterparts and therefore easy to guess the meaning of, for instance, interessante, elegante, normale, and intelligente.
You can now take the common adjectives in the list and apply them to any nouns you can think of. The following examples will get you started. Remember to use both singular and plural nouns, and make sure to say your examples ad alta voce (out loud).
• Il bambino è felice, triste, dolce, intelligente, forte, etc.
• La bambina è felice, triste, dolce, intelligente, etc.
• I bambini sono tristi, dolci, intelligenti, etc.
• Le bambine sono tristi, dolci, intelligenti, etc.
• Il libro (the book) è interessante, facile, elegante, triste, etc.
• I libri sono interessanti, facili, eleganti, tristi, etc.
• La serata (the evening out) è stata elegante, pesante, interessante, etc.
• Le serate sono state eleganti, pesanti, interessanti, etc.
• La lezione (the lesson) era interessante, pesante, importante, etc.
• Le lezioni erano interessanti, pesanti, importanti, etc.
Exceptions: We also come across plenty of exceptions regarding endings and gender. For example, il pane (the bread) is masculine but ends in "e." Feminine nouns, on the other hand, often end in a but not always. La mente (the mind) is feminine but ends in e. These kinds of nouns should probably get memorized, but the good news is that there are a great many nouns that are predictable and as a result, their adjectives are predictable, too.
Nouns and adjectives go together like salt and pepper, so this might be a great time to review nouns and their genders. Being sure of the gender of a noun will help you make the right decision regarding the adjective ending. Marika gives us some categories that makes gender learning a bit easier.
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