The future tense with conjunctions: A will-will situation
In a previous lesson, we discussed how Italian uses the future tense to express probability, as well as the future itself. Now, getting back to the normal use of the future tense, we’re going to see how it works when using conjunctions such as se (if), quando (when), appena (as soon as), non appena (as soon as), finché (as long as), and finché non (until) to connect two parts of a sentence. Italian and English have two different approaches to this. In Italian the future tense has to be present on both sides of the conjunction, while in English the future tense appears on only one side. Consider the following example, where Francesca is telling us about what she is going to wear when she goes skiing:
Questa la indosserò quando sarò in prossimità dei campi da sci.
This I'll put on when I'm close to the ski slopes.
Caption 34, Francesca - neve - Part 2Play Caption
Translated literally, this would be: This I’ll put on when I will be close to the ski slopes.
What we need to remember is that in Italian the future tense will appear on both sides of these conjunctions—a “will-will” situation.
One important conjunction frequently used with the future is appena (as soon as). Attenzione! Appena by itself is also an adverb meaning “barely,” “scarcely,” or “just.”
Ho appena finito.
I just finished.
Si vedeva appena.
One could barely see it.
When used as a conjunction meaning “as soon as,” appena will often be preceded by non, which, depending on the context, can give it an extra bit of urgency or emphasis. (Note that non in this case has nothing to do with negation.) In English we might say “just as soon as” for that same kind of emphasis.
Mi chiamerà appena starà meglio.
She’ll call me as soon as she’s better.
Mi chiamerà non appena starà meglio.
She’ll call me as soon as she’s better.
She’ll call me just as soon as she’s better.
We can put the conjunction at the beginning of the sentence, but il succo non cambia (the “juice” or gist doesn’t change).
Appena starà meglio, mi chiamerà.
[It could also be: Non appena starà meglio mi chiamerà.]
As soon as she's better, she’ll call me.
Just as soon as she’s better, she’ll call me.
Two more related conjunctions used with the future are finché (as long as) and finché non (until). While appena can appear with or without “non” preceding it and mean pretty much the same thing, with finché and finche non, we have two related but distinct meanings. Finché by itself means “as long as,” but if we negate it with non, it becomes “until.” Let’s see how this works.
In the following example, Manara’s boss is warning him about his unconventional behavior. Grammatically speaking, he uses the futuro anteriore, but the key here is that he uses the future, where in English “until” calls for the present perfect (“have shown”) here.
Lei non se ne andrà da qui finché non avrà
You won't leave here until you've
dimostrato di essere un vero commissario.
shown yourself to be a true commissioner.
Caption 42, Il Commissario Manara - S1EP1 - Un delitto perfettoPlay Caption
Translated literally: You won’t leave this place until you will have shown yourself to be a true commissioner.
Or, to understand how finché non becomes “until”: You won’t leave this place as long as you will not have shown yourself to be a true commissioner.
Attenzione! Occasionally finché non will be used in speech without “non,” but will still clearly mean “until.” The context will clue you in. If you watch this video about Fellini, you’ll come across an example of this in caption 17.
Finché viene il giorno della partenza.
Until the day of departure arrives.
Caption 17, Fellini Racconta - Un Autoritratto RitrovatoPlay Caption
As you watch Yabla videos, pay special attention to the conjunctions mentioned above when they crop up. It’s worth spending some time understanding first hand how this works in Italian, so why not try making up some sentences using these conjunctions and the future tense? To get started:
Non appena avrò finito di mangiare, farò i compiti.
Just as soon as I’m finished eating, I’ll do my homework.
Appena avrò finito di mangiare, farò i compiti.
As soon as I’ve finished eating, I’ll do my homework.
Non farò i compiti finché non avrò finito di mangiare.
I’m not going to do my homework until I’ve finished eating.
Finché starò a tavola, non penserò ai compiti.
As long as I’m at the dinner table, I’m not going to think about my homework.
Se non avrò finito di mangiare, non potrò cominciare.
If I haven’t finished eating, I won’t be able to start.
Quando avrò finito di mangiare, farò i compiti.
When I’ve finished eating, I’ll do my homework.