In a previous lesson we talked about the preposition in, and in a subsequent lesson we talked about how we modify the preposition in when a definite article follows it. The preposition a works in a similar way, and sometimes means the same thing as in, but certainly not always.
A is used to refer to places, both going somewhere and being somewhere. Sound familiar? Yes. Just like in, a can mean "to" (indicating direction to a place) or "at" (indicating being in a place). Consider this short example.
OK, ho finito. Vado a casa (OK, I'm done. I'm going home).
Che bello! Finalmente sono a casa (how great! I'm finally home)!
Note that if I say sono in casa, I imply that I am inside the house, whereas if I say sono a casa, it might mean I am at home, but outside in the garden!
If we look at the preposition a in the dictionary, there's a long list of meanings, or rather, uses. But in this lesson, we'll look at just a few of the most common ways you need to know how to use this preposition.
We also say a scuola with no article. This is similar to English.
Sono a scuola (I'm at school)
Sto andando a scuola (I'm going to school).
Although these locations without an article are exceptions, they are important ones, since most of us have a home and many of us go to school or have kids or friends who go to school. Another perhaps less crucial one is a teatro ("to" or "at the theater").
In most other cases regarding places, we do need a definite article after the preposition, as in:
A me e a Vladi piace andare a ballare la sera, uscire con gli amici, andare a vedere qualche bel film al cinema e fare molto sport.
Valdi and I like to go dancing at night, going out with our friends, going to see a good film at the movies and playing a lot of sports.
Captions 17-20, Adriano la sua ragazzaPlay Caption
Dall'Umbria alla Toscana, il passo è breve.
From Umbria to Tuscany, it's but a short way.
Caption 2, Alberto Angela - Meraviglie EP. 4 - Part 6Play Caption
But for now, let's look at some other ways we use the preposition a.
We use a to talk about "when" or "until when."
For example, when we talk about "at what time" something is going to happen, we use a and in this case we use a definite article when talking about "at what time."
La mattina mi sveglio intorno alle otto.
In the morning I wake up at around eight o'clock.
Caption 5, Adriano GiornataPlay Caption
Why is it le otto? Isn't that plural? Yes. We use the feminine plural definite article (le) because there's a "hidden" word: le ore (the hours). Think of a clock striking the hours. So, yes. Time, when considered by the clock, is expressed in the plural, and of course, it takes some getting used to. For more about telling time, see this video from Marika.
But if we are talking about noon or midnight, then it's in the singular and there is no article.
Io mi ricordo che a casa mia si mangiava, allora, il, a mezzogiorno si mangiava: il primo, la carne, il contorno e la frutta,
I remember that at my house we'd eat, then, the, at noon we'd eat: the first course, meat, vegetable and fruit,
Captions 33-35, L'arte della cucina La Prima Identitá - Part 14Play Caption
We also use a when we talk about until what time something will go on.
Sì, ma fino a mezzanotte il commissario sono io.
Yes, but until midnight, I'm the commissioner.Play Caption
When we mention the months or a holiday, we use a:
Sembrava che la nebbia ci fosse anche a Ferragosto.
It seemed as though there was fog even at/on Ferragosto (national holiday on August 15th).Play Caption
E si possono pagare con varie rate, anche non tutte insieme. Varie rate che scadono ogni semestre, perché l'anno dell'u'... l'anno in cui si frequenta l'università è diviso in due semestri. -Il primo che va da settembre a gennaio, e il secondo, va da? -Il secondo va da febbraio a luglio.
And you can pay in various installments, not all at once. Different installments that are due every semester, because the school year... the year in which you attend university is divided into two semesters. -The first that goes from September to January, and the second, goes from? -The second goes from February to July.
Captions 18-22, Serena sistema universitario italianoPlay Caption
And finally, we use a when we say what something is like, what something is made of, or in what way something is done. We often use "with" for this in English, or we use an adjective. This topic is addressed in the Yabla lesson: A Righe or a Quadretti?
We talk about olio di oliva spremuto a freddo (cold-pressed olive oil).
In the following example, Monica Bellucci is describing how she goes about her career. Note that since istinto (instinct) starts with a vowel, she adds a d to the a!
Ma io non ho una formula, guarda, vado a m'... vado avanti molto ad istinto.
Well I don't have a formula, look, I go... I go along very much by instinct.
Caption 47, That's Italy Episode 1 - Part 3Play Caption
Here are two expressions, one with a and one with in, that essentially mean the same thing. You just have to remember which is which. They are worth memorizing.
Ad ogni modo, mi piace tanto.
In any case, I like her a lot.
Caption 36, Adriano la sua ragazzaPlay Caption
In ogni caso, anche se sapevo che era veramente una cosa folle, ho deciso di prendere Ulisse,
In any case, even though I knew it was really a crazy thing, I decided to take Ulisse,
Captions 28-29, Andromeda La storia di UlissePlay Caption
Looking forward to seeing you in the next lesson. A presto!
We recently talked about the preposition in: what it means and how to use it. While we don't always use an article with the noun following it, we often do. And when we do use in with a definite article, we combine the preposition and the article to form what we call una preposizione articolata (an "articled" preposition).
Basically, the n, instead of being at the end of the preposition in, gets moved to the beginning of the word and is followed by an e. After that, the ending will change according to the gender and number of the definite article, as well as whether the word following it starts with a vowel.
Here's the list:
(in + il) nel
(in + lo) nello
(in + l') nell'
(in + la) nella
(in + i) nei
(in + le) nelle
Nel frattempo, riempiamo una pentola d'acqua
In the meantime, we'll fill a pot with waterPlay Caption
We say nel because it's il frattempo. But here's a tip. Actually, we rarely say il frattempo. Most of the time you will find the noun frattempo together with the preposition nel. It's curious because the noun frattempo already comes from another preposition fra (between) and the noun tempo (time). In English we can say "in the meantime" or "meanwhile," which mean almost the same thing. But we need to translate both of these as nel frattempo or, alternatively, nel mentre, which means the same thing.
Questo è fondamentale quando ci si trova appunto nello studio di doppiaggio a dover affrontare un, un testo oppure un personaggio.
This is fundamental when you find yourself, in fact, in the dubbing studio and need to deal with a script or a character.
Captions 16-17, Arianna e Marika Il lavoro di doppiatricePlay Caption
We say nello because we say lo studio (the studio). So here, you have to pay attention to the first letter of the word following the preposition. It will start with an S plus a consonant, or a Z, and sometimes Y.
"Quanti libri hai nello zaino?
"How many books do you have in your backpack?
Caption 9, Marika spiega La particella NE - Part 2Play Caption
Oppure nello yogurt, la mela sciolta diciam'... ridotta a polpa nello yogurt, sempre sul viso, è idratante.
Or else in some yogurt, an apple dissolved, let's say... reduced to a pulp in some yogurt, again on the face, is moisturising.
Caption 22, Enea Mela - Part 2Play Caption
Il tasto "play" e "pause" si trova esattamente nello stesso punto del pannello di controllo.
The "play" and "pause" button is located in exactly the same spot on the control panel.
Captions 15-16, Italian Intro SerenaPlay Caption
We use l' when the first letter of the word following the article starts with a vowel. We double the L and add an apostrophe.
Nell'ultimo ventennio, i coronavirus si sono imposti all'attenzione del mondo in tre momenti precisi:
In the last twenty years, coronaviruses have caught the attention of the entire world in three precise moments:
Captions 27-29, COVID-19 Domande frequenti - Part 1Play Caption
Allora, può intagliare così, può intagliare un pomodoro così, mettere una pentola d'acqua a bollire e tenere i pomodori nell'acqua bollente per dieci minuti.
So, they can make an incision like this, they can cut a notch in a tomato like so, put up a pot of water to boil, and keep the tomatoes in the boiling water for ten minutes.
Captions 10-14, L'Italia a tavola La pappa al pomodoro - Part 2Play Caption
È da circa otto minuti che i nostri spaghetti stanno cuocendo nella pentola.
It's been about eight minutes that our spaghetti has been cooking in the pot.
Caption 38, Adriano Spaghetti pomodoro e aglioPlay Caption
E due luoghi sacri si trovano proprio nei punti più alti della città:
And two sacred places are found right at the highest points of the city:
Caption 12, Alberto Angela - Meraviglie EP. 1 - Part 10Play Caption
Leonardo, molto spesso, nelle sue opere, faceva le figure centrali quasi fossero delle piramidi e poi i dodici apostoli sono suddivisi in gruppi di tre.
Leonardo, very often in his works, made the central figures almost as if they were pyramids and then, the twelve apostles are divided into groups of three.
Captions 10-13, Alberto Angela - Meraviglie EP. 3 - Part 12Play Caption
Olivetti è sempre riuscito nelle cose che ha intrapreso.
Olivetti has always succeeded in the things he has undertaken.Play Caption
In future lessons, we will talk about other common prepositions that follow these same principles.
In a previous lesson, we talked about how to say hello and goodbye in Italian: There are formal and informal ways of doing so. And the very first lesson Daniela teaches in her popular series of classroom lessons is about how to greet people: salutare.
Oggi impariamo le forme di saluto.
Today we're going to learn ways to greet people.Play Caption
Before looking at the everyday meanings of salutare, we should acknowledge that it does also mean "to salute," as one would salute in the military, or salute the flag. But that is a very small part of the picture!
In addition to knowing how to greet people — a very important thing in Italian — we also use the verb salutare itself, quite often, to talk about greetings and greeting someone, as well as within the greeting or leavetaking itself, but what exactly does it mean? In fact, it's a little tricky. Just as ciao can mean "hi" or "bye," salutare can mean "to say hello" or "to say goodbye." Let's look at the verb salutare in context to get a better idea of how it's used.
Saying goodbye can be tough.
È arrivato il momento di salutarci, mi pare, no? -Eh. -Sì.
The time has come to say goodbye [to each other], I think, right? -Yeah. -Yes.Play Caption
The previous example is just one instance of the verb within the segment of the Commissario Manara episode, an episode in which Luca Manara is about to leave his present job and go back to Milan.
Here's another little scene from the same episode and segment about saying goodbye. One thing to notice is that while in the previous example, salutarci means "to say goodbye to each other" (reciprocal reflexive), in the example below, salutarci means "to say goodbye to us." That pesky ci again!
Brigadiere, ma che sei venuto a salutarmi? Caterina. -Povero cagnozzo, gli mancherai, eh. Io non posso credere che te ne saresti andato senza salutarci. -No, veramente... sono passato davanti a casa Sua, -Eh. -ma Lei non c'era. Comunque, io sono veramente contento che Lei sia venuta a salutarmi, perché voglio dirLe grazie.
Brigadiere, what, did you come to say goodbye to me? Caterina. -Poor doggy, he'll miss you, yeah. I can't believe that you would leave without even saying goodbye to us. -No, actually... I came by your house, -Huh. -and you weren't there. Anyway, I'm very happy that you came to say goodbye to me, because I want to say thank you to you.
Captions 42-47, Il Commissario Manara S1EP12 - Le verità nascoste - Part 8Play Caption
When we want to take our leave, or end a phone call, we can say:
Ti devo salutare (I have to say goodbye, I have to hang up, I have to go).
Ti saluto, vado a casa. (I'll be going. I'm going home).
So salutare often means "to say goodbye." But it also means "to say hello," "to greet." In the following example, a grandpa is telling his grandchildren to say hello to their grandmother.
Quanto mi siete mancati. -Salutate la nonna.
How I've missed you! -Say hello to Grandma.Play Caption
In the following example, Olivetti is greeting an old, estranged friend (he says ciao) who pretends not to see him.
Mauro! Ciao, Mauro. Cos'è? Non mi saluti?
Mauro. Hello, Mauro. What's the matter? You're not saying hello to me?
Captions 12-14, Adriano Olivetti La forza di un sogno Ep.2 - Part 9Play Caption
But in the next example, the people conversing are being formal with each other. The speaker calls the lady signora. And thus, he uses the formal, second-person imperative.
Arrivederci, signora. E mi saluti suo marito, eh. Ci tengo tanto, ah. Me lo saluti tanto, eh?
Goodbye, ma'am. And greet your husband, huh? It means a lot to me. Greet him warmly, huh?
Captions 74-77, Il Commissario Manara S1EP6 - Reazione a Catena - Part 3Play Caption
As we said, Manara is speaking formally. He says me lo saluti (greet him for me) using the imperative. He could also be saying "Give my regards to your husband." But if he were talking to a friend, he could put this all in one single word including two pronouns stuck to the verb. Saluta (greet) + me (for me) lo (him) / la (her).
In some contexts, (and as we saw in the very first video example), we use the noun form il saluto or un saluto (a greeting, a salutation) instead of the verb salutare.
Parliamo ora dei saluti informali.
Let's now talk about informal greetings.
Caption 24, Marika spiega Saluti verbali e a gestiPlay Caption
In the following example, we see a typical way of saying, "I won't ever talk to you again." But Italians give it a different twist. They say they are going to "take away" "saying hello," as in, "I'm not even going to greet you!" The verb is togliere (to remove).
La chiamo e gli [sic: le] dico che non ci vado. Ch'aggia fa' [napoletano: che devo fare]? -Fallo e ti tolgo il saluto.
I'll call her and tell her I'm not going. What can I do? -You do that and I won't talk to you anymore.Play Caption
Un saluto or saluti is what you might write on a postcard while you're on vacation somewhere. It's often in the plural:
Ciao vecchio. Saluti da Rio, Max.
Hi, old timer. Greetings from Rio, Max.
Caption 40, La Ladra Ep. 10 - Un ignobile ricatto - Part 7Play Caption
Salutare can also be interpreted to mean "to give one's regards to" so we often see saluti at the end of a short business email.
It can appear by itself or be embellished as follows:
Distinti saluti ([best] regards)
Cordiali saluti (kind regards)
That's it for this lesson, and we'll see you soon. A presto.
This business of gender in Italian can be so tricky for non-native speakers. When we hear a word, we don't always pay attention to the ending of a noun. It can easily get lost, so when we then have to actually say the word, for example, when looking for something in a shop, the doubt surges up. Which is it: a or o? So yes, we basically know the word, but the gender, and thus, the ending, escapes us. It's a great reason to learn a noun with its article, as we try to help you do in our Yabla vocabulary reviews at the end of our videos.
Alas, even people who have been living in Italy for years and years still have these doubts from time to time and get it wrong sometimes.
Let's look at one such word, or rather two. Because the same word with a different ending can mean something quite different. At the same time, we can usually find a connection between the two words through its root, or through the verb the noun came from, and that's always kind of fun (for us nerdy-type learners among us).
I go into a shop to buy a new bathroom scale. Is it un bilancio or una bilancia????? There's that embarrassing moment when you can't remember which it is. At that moment, you desperately try a workaround, using a different word like una cosa per pesarsi (something for weighing oneself). In fact, we can also call a bathroom scale a pesapersone (which luckily, can be either masculine or feminine!).
To get to the root of a word, which can sometimes help us understand it, we look to Latin, the source of most Italian words. We often look to the verb, but it turns out that in this case, the noun came first.
We have the late Latin noun "bilanx," made up of "bi-," meaning "two" and "lanx" meaning "plate." Picture an old fashioned type of scale that is made up of precisely that: two suspended plates on which to place the weights and the items you want to weigh.
With this image, you can remember the feminine goddess of justice, holding up the scale. And that can help you remember that the word for scale is la bilancia and it's feminine.
Prego, alla bilancia. Bene, abbiamo finito. Rivestitevi.
Please, on the scale. Good, we're done. Get dressed again.
Captions 11-12, La Tempesta film - Part 19Play Caption
Certainly, Italians get on a bathroom scale just as often as anyone, but they also use a little scale in the kitchen, to weigh items like la pasta, la farina (flour), lo zucchero (sugar), il riso (rice), etc.
From the noun la bilancia, we derive the verb bilanciare (to balance). You can balance the books or accounts, or you can balance the weights on an old-fashioned mechanical scale. The following example is from an explanation of the economy with the board game Monopoly as a model. It's describing the role of the Bank.
Cioè, immette liquidità nella partita per bilanciare la sfortuna dei giocatori o semplicemente l'eventuale mancanza di contante.
That is, it issues liquidity into the game to balance the misfortunes of the players, or simply the potential lack of cash.
Captions 26-27, l'Economia Spiegata Facile Perché le banche ci prestano i soldi?Play Caption
Bilanciare also has a reflexive form bilanciarsi. In this case it's intransitive. You might use this form if you are walking a tightrope, or carrying packages.
If it's about money, you are probably looking for the masculine il bilancio. It can mean the budget, the balancing of the budget, or the accounts.
This example is about cooking the books.
Che cosa ha fatto? Che cosa non ha fatto? Fallimento, falso in bilancio, bancarotta fraudolenta,
What did he do? What didn't he do? Bankruptcy, tampering with the books, fraudulent bankruptcy,
Captions 63-64, Il Commissario Manara S1EP5 - Il Raggio Verde - Part 10Play Caption
Here are some common phrases with bilancio, which is used a bit differently from English.
fare il bilancio, chiudere il bilancio (to draw up the balance sheet)
far quadrare il bilancio (to balance the books)
chiudere il bilancio in attivo/passivo (to make a profit/loss)
fare il bilancio della situazione (fig) (to assess the situation)
This lesson is dedicated to an old friend who had trouble with bilancia and bilancio. Are there words you have trouble remembering? Words that change meanings between masculine and feminine? The next lesson could be dedicated to you! Write to us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
There are a lot of things to do in the summer, but Italians talk about them a bit differently than English speakers do. The word we will hear all the time in Italy, at least if we're within a two hour drive from the coast, is il mare.
As you can see from the following example, we talk about the beach, because for the most part, we have sandy beaches. But Italy, being a peninsula (penisola in Italian) is surrounded on three coasts by the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, so it's a vital part of the country itself. The sea has different names depending on what part of Italy it touches on.
Infatti, io e Giorgia siamo andate insieme al mare.
In fact, Giorgia and I went to the beach together.
Caption 21, Francesca e Marika Il verbo andare coniugazionePlay Caption
For more vocabulary about the beach, check out these videos:
This one is about a beach very close to Pisa, something to keep in mind if you visit Pisa in the summer.
Finalmente siamo arrivati al mare. [Marina di Pisa]
We've finally arrived at the seaside. [Marina di Pisa]Play Caption
Here's a wonderful series about the Aeolian Islands off the coast of Sicily. They are breathtakingly beautiful and well worth a visit. If you can't visit, watch the video!
La località isolata e selvaggia di grande bellezza naturale, si può raggiungere solo via mare.
The wild and isolated village, with its great natural beauty, is only reachable by sea.
Caption 11, Linea Blu Le Eolie - Part 8Play Caption
But let's say you like to swim, but in a pool rather than in the sea.
When you go to a pool regularly, to swim laps, then you can say faccio nuoto (I'm a swimmer, I swim): In the following example, Annamaria Mazzetti trains for Olympic triathlons.
Facciamo nuoto, bici, corsa tutti i giorni.
We swim, cycle, and run every day.
Caption 14, Le Olimpiadi 2012 Annamaria MazzettiPlay Caption
But let's say you want to go kayaking (andare in canoa), the instructor will ask you:
Do you know how to swim?Play Caption
If not, they will give you a life jacket or life preserver (un salvagente).
But let's say you're at the beach and you just want to go in the water and play in the waves. It sounds strange to us, because many of us have learned that bagno means bathroom...
noi amici, trascorriamo il tempo giocando, oppure nelle giornate estive facciamo il bagno e... invece, in quelle invernali veniamo qui per chiacchierare,
we friends pass the time playing, or else, on summer days we go swimming and... and on winter ones we come here to talk,
Captions 16-18, Amiche sulla spiaggiaPlay Caption
So if someone asks you: "Facciamo il bagno?" you will know they want you to go in the water at the beach or at the pool (in piscina).
Finally, one thing Italians say all the time during the summer is:
Ah, che caldo!
Oh, it's so hot!
Caption 1, Andromeda in - Storia del gelato - Part 1Play Caption
Caldo is an adjective meaning "hot", but also a noun meaning "heat": il caldo.
Enjoy your summer, or looking forward to summer, depending on where you are.
In a previous lesson, we looked at some Italian words that have to do with "right": retto and its feminine form retta. We mentioned that there are other words that can mean "right" and so in this lesson, we will look at two more: diritto, dritto. Sometimes they mean "right" and sometimes they don't, but they are very good words to know!
If we look at the dictionary entry for dritto, we also find diritto, so they are very closely related and can often be used interchangeably. And sometimes it's hard to tell if someone is saying one or the other. But there are cases where you can't swap them.
When you have rights (or not), then you use diritto as a masculine noun. Dritto won't work in this case!
Mi dice con che diritto ha fermato Stefano?
Will you tell what right you had to detain Stefano?Play Caption
As in English, we can talk about rights in general: equal rights, civil rights, etc., thus using the plural.
Anch'io ho i miei diritti e la mia dignità di lavoratore.
I also have my rights and my dignity as a worker.Play Caption
While a single law is una legge, law in general is referred to as diritto or giurisprudenza. Here, too, dritto won't do.
Mi sono appena iscritto alla facolta di Diritto.
I'm just enrolled in Law school.
Although dritta as a noun almost surely derives from the verb dirigere, it has become a colloquial but widely used feminine noun in itself. In this case, someone is heading you in the right direzione (direction) by giving you some good advice or a tip. Diritta doesn't work here.
Gli ho solamente dato qualche dritta su come tenere pulito il lastricato dalla gramigna. -Ah!
I just gave him a few tips on how to keep the flagstones free of weeds. -Ah.
Captions 53-54, La Ladra Ep. 7 - Il piccolo ladro - Part 8Play Caption
We can use the noun form dritto/dritta to describe someone who is sly, a smooth operator.
La dritta can also indicate the right-[hand] side, the one used to direct (dirigere). On a ship, it's the starboard side. On a medal il dritto is the "front" side. In knitting, dritto is a plain stitch.
Just as with "right" in English, diritto can be either an adjective or a noun, but it can also be an adverb.
One thing a parent might tell a child is:
Valentina, sta dritta.
Valentina, stand up straight.Play Caption
As we found in the lesson on retto, "straight" and "right" are close cousins in English. Think of the word "upright."
One way we use the adverb dritto or diritto is when we give directions, so this is super important. Whether you say diritto or dritto, people will understand you just fine.
Here, Daniela is teaching us about giving directions.
OK? Allora, andare a destra, andare a sinistra, andare dritto, andare sempre dritto, andare tutto dritto.
OK? So, "to go to the right," "to go to the left," "to go straight," "to go straight ahead." "to go straight ahead."
Captions 53-54, Corso di italiano con Daniela Chiedere informazioni - Part 1Play Caption
"Rigare dritto" vuol dire comportarsi bene.
"To toe the line" [to make a straight line] means "to behave."Play Caption
Check out Marika's video where she says a bit more about the expression rigare dritto or filare dritto.
In the following example, we could also say the shot went right to the heart.
Un colpo di pistola dritto al cuore a distanza ravvicinata, ma...
A gunshot direct to the heart at close range, but...Play Caption
There is certainly more to say about these fascinating and important words, but your head must be full by now. Keep your eyes and ears open as you watch Yabla videos. These words will be peppered all through them. Let us know your questions and doubts, and we'll get back to you. Write to us at email@example.com
In English, we have the pronoun "one" and the number "one." They both refer to something single but do not mean exactly the same thing. We have a similar phenomenon in Italian, but it goes a step further. This lesson will explore the word uno in various contexts, and since this will take us to the subject of "indefinite articles," we'll take the opportunity to look at those, too!
Uno (one) can be the number "one":
Adesso proveremo noi insieme un passo base di Tango. Uno, due, tre.
Now, together, we'll try out the basic steps of the Tango. One, two, three.
Captions 38-39, Adriano balla il Tango ArgentinoPlay Caption
We can use uno as an adjective when we are talking about "how many?" One.
Ho trovato solo uno stivale. L'altro l'ho perso (I found only one boot. I lost the other one).
Uno is an indefinite article, "a", used only when followed by a Z or by an S + a consonant:*
Uno scontrino, perché? Perché la parola inizia per s più consonante.
"Uno scontrino." Why? Because the word starts with "s" plus a consonant.Play Caption
Caption 27, Adriano Pasta alla carbonara - Part 2Play Caption
When the masculine word following the article begins with a vowel or single consonant (excluding Z) it's un.
Quello che è successo è un segnale.
What happened is a sign.Play Caption
This is the most common masculine indefinite article and as we mentioned above, it remains the same even when it comes before a vowel (no apostrophe).
Stiamo cercando un aviatore americano.
We're looking for an American pilot.Play Caption
When this article comes before a feminine noun (or the adjective that describes it), it's una.
Hai una bellissima voce.
You have a very beautiful voice.
Caption 9, Adriano Fiaba - Part 2Play Caption
If the feminine indefinite article una comes before a word that starts with a vowel, it becomes un' so as not to break the flow.
Magari sarà per un'altra volta.
Perhaps, another time.Play Caption
Here, instead of saying give me una borsa (a bag), Eva just says give me one of them.
Dai, dammene una. -No, no, so' [romanesco: sono] abituata.
Come on, give me one of them. -No, no, I'm used to it.
Caption 6, La Ladra Ep. 4 - Una magica bionda - Part 5Play Caption
Attenzione! In order to speak correctly, you have to know the gender of the noun you are replacing!
But uno can also mean the pronoun "someone."
Allora, innanzitutto, quando uno studia a uni'... a una università, eh, per esempio in Italia, eh, a Firenze...
So, first of all, when someone studies at a uni... at a university, uh, for example, in Italy, uh, in Florence...
Captions 17-18, Arianna e Marika Il Progetto Erasmus - Part 1Play Caption
Uno quando ha un talento, lo deve coltivare,
When someone has talent, he has to cultivate it,Play Caption
Generally speaking, the masculine form is used to mean "someone," however, if you want to specify that that someone is a female, then una can serve the same purpose.
For English speakers, getting the article right in Italian can be confusing, especially since in many cases, you have to know the gender of the noun you are using the article with and that can be daunting, too!
When translating, we often have to think twice. Does uno/un/una mean "one" or "a"? Since it's the same word in Italian, it's not always clear!
Doing the Scribe exercises at the end of the videos you watch can be a great way to learn how to use the articles — You ask yourself, "When do I use the apostrophe? And when not?" You'll make plenty of mistakes, but little by little it will sink in.
If you want more lessons about using articles, let us know at firstname.lastname@example.org.
*Here are some of the video lessons that might be helpful for learning about using indefinite articles (called articoli indeterminativi).
We've talked about two words to use when we need something fixed: sistemare and riparare. Here's another: accommodare. This verb looks a lot like the English verb to accommodate and while they both come from the same Latin word "accomodare" they are not true cognates.
Questa bici è vecchia ma l'ho fatta accommodare da un amico esperto e sembra nuova.
This bike is old, but I had it fixed up by a friend who's an expert, and it's just like new.
It could be that the verb accomodare is used less frequently than some others to mean "to repair" but it's good to know it exists, as you might hear it and get confused if you hadn't read this lesson!
When getting something repaired, it's common to use the verb fare (to make, to do) and the infinitive form of the verb accomodare as in our example above: fare accomodare (to get repaired). Let's keep in mind that used this way, accomodare is a transitive verb, in other words, it takes a direct object.
As with sistemare, accomodare can be used to mean to tidy up, to arrange, as in getting a bedroom ready for someone.
Ho accommodato la stanza dove dormirai.
I got the room where you'll be sleeping ready for you.
As with many verbs, there is a reflexive form of accomodare, and in this case, it has come to mean something completely different from the normal verb. Here, we can also see a connection with the adjective comodo (comfortable, at ease).
This verb is very important when someone invites you into their house. Of course, when you enter, it is always polite to say permesso. You're asking permission to come in.
Con permesso? Permesso?
May I come in? May I come in?Play Caption
One answer you might get is this, especially if you know the person well:
Posso? -Vieni. Accomodati. Ti ho portato i prospetti che mi avevi chiesto.
May I? -Come in. Have a seat. I brought the forecasts you had asked me for.
Captions 19-20, Questione di Karma Rai Cinema - Part 14Play Caption
In the example above, the reflexive accomodarsi is used in the second person singular imperative. It can mean "Have a seat" but can also mean, "Make yourself comfortable," "Get yourself settled."
If you are staying with someone, perhaps they will show you to your room. They might say:
Ti faccio accomodare qui.
You can get settled in here.
The same goes for when you have dinner.
Se ho degli ospiti a pranzo o a cena, li faccio accomodare qui, su [sic: a] questo tavolo.
If I have guests for lunch or for dinner, I have them sit here, on [sic, at] this table.
Captions 34-36, Marika spiega Il salonePlay Caption
Accomodarsi is used in the polite form as well, especially in offices, and is one way of inviting you in, but can also mean "please have a seat." In the following example, it's combined with venga — the polite singular imperative form of venire (to come).
Commissario, c'è la signora Fello. Signora Fello, venga. -Permesso? -Venga, si accomodi.
Chief, Missus Fello is here. Missus Fello, come in. -May I? -Come in, have a seat.
Captions 37-39, Il Commissario Manara S2EP10 -La verità nascosta - Part 3Play Caption
If you read our lessons regularly, you might have come across a lesson about the adjective comodo, which has a couple of different meanings. The lesson also discusses accomodarsi briefly, so check it out here.
Using accomodarsi in sentences can be challenging, but it's important to have the verb comfortably in your vocabulary toolbox. So if you have questions such as "How do I say __________ in Italian," we are here to help! Write to us at email@example.com.
In some parts of the world, la bicicletta (the bicycle) has gained popularity lately because of the coronavirus. Some people like to avoid i mezzi pubblici (public transportation) and have begun opting for the bike. In Italy, bicycles have always been hugely popular, and la bicicletta is known affectionately as la bici. On weekends, you will see swarms of cyclists on country roads, so be careful if you're driving!
Per visitare al meglio il centro città di Lucca, ho deciso di prendere una bicicletta a noleggio. In questo modo, posso girare attraverso le vie del centro e addirittura pedalare sulle mura antiche.
To best see the city center of Lucca, I decided to rent a bicycle. That way, I can go around on the streets of the center and even pedal on the old walls.
Captions 13-16, In giro per l'Italia Lucca - Part 3
Curiously, the preposition used for saying "by bike" or "on the bike" is in (in), as we see in the following example.
Ti prometto che vado a scuola in bici. OK?
I promise I'll go to school by bike. OK?
Caption 54, La Ladra Ep. 3 - L'oro dello squalo - Part 4Play Caption
Il ciclismo (cycling) is also an excellent way to get exercise while being out in the fresh air and maintaining a certain distance from other people, so there's been a bit of a boom in recent months.
Let's take a look at some of the vocabulary that can be useful when talking about bikes.
The kind of bike that an older person would ride just to get around town, a bike that has just one gear, is called una bici olandese. Olandese means "Dutch — from Holland," and describes the kind of bike that works well on flat terrain (as in Holland), not hills. We'd probably describe this kind of bike as a clunker. Maybe it's been in the family for years. It's pesante (heavy), robusta (sturdy), there are parafanghi (fenders), and even a chain guard, so you don't get grease on your clothes while you're riding your bike to work. These bicycles usually have un cestino (a basket) and un portapacchi (a rack) on the back.
This is the kind of bike you would normally rent to get around a city, although these days, regular bikes have more gears and are more fun to ride. Cities can be a little hilly, so gears really help! When the bike has a comfortable seat and handlebars, but five or so gears so that you can do the hills and build up some speed on level terrain or descents, it's called a city bike, which needs no translation.
Now we get to bicycles that are made for appassionati di ciclismo (bike lovers), for people who like to ride for fun or sport.
Here, too, Italians have taken over the English term and call a mountain bike la mountain bike. So that's easy! These bikes are hugely popular with just about everyone, and can go everywhere, from normal roads to strade bianche (unpaved roads), strade sterrate (dirt roads), and ghiaia (gravel). People take them to the beach, too. They have a special kind of manubrio (handlebars) with il cambio (the gear shift) right there so you can switch gears without taking your hands off the handlebars.
Then we have road bikes: These are usually called bici da corsa because they are streamlined, made for going fast and are basically the kind of bike they use in races. They have curved handlebars that allow you to be aerodynamically positioned. These bikes have evolved over the years, but the basic design has remained the same.
Here are some of the words you might need when talking about bikes:
la sella (the saddle, the seat)
i parafanghi (the fenders)
il campanello the bell)
il manubrio (the handlebars)
il freno (the brake)
la ruota (the wheel)
la gomma (the tire)
i pedali (the pedals)
la catena (the chain)
la pompa (the pump)
la camera d’aria (the tube)
il cestino (the basket)
il portapacchi (the rack)
l’ingranaggio (the gear)
il cambio (the gearshifters)
i raggi (the spokes)
il cavalletto (the kickstand)
il gruppo* (the groupset) Note: the Italian word il gruppo means "the group" and has come to mean "groupset" — the mechanical parts of a bicycle. It's used in both Italian and English.
forare (to get a flat tire)
frenare (to brake)
salire (to get on)
scendere (to get off)
Other related words and phrases:
il ciclista (the cyclist)
noleggiare (to rent)
biciclette a noleggio (rental bikes)
il lucchetto (the lock)
alzare/abbassare la sella (to raise or lower the seat)
Quanto costa noleggiare una bici per un'ora (how much does it cost to rent a bike for an hour)?
Praticamente tutti i punti sono forniti di negozi per noleggiare le biciclette.
Pretty much all these points are equipped with shops for renting bicycles...
Caption 47, In giro per l'Italia Lucca - Part 1Play Caption
Let's look quickly at the verb noleggiare and its related noun il noleggio. Both of these words work when talking about renting a bike: noleggiare or prendere a noleggio. You might hear some people use another word for "rent" — affittare or prendere in aftitto. The meaning is the same, but affittare is used for things like an apartment or house, while noleggiare is used more for movable things. Affittare is never wrong, however, just less common in this context.
Infatti, ha affittato due biciclette, e così, andate in giro per la città.
In fact, he's rented two bicycles, and that way, you go around the city.
Captions 34-35, Marika spiega I veicoliPlay Caption
We hope this lesson will be helpful to you next time you travel to Italy, for either work or pleasure.
Some languages use one word to say something, another might need 2 or more to say the same thing. In the case of "living together," Italian has a word that sums it up nicely: la convivenza as a noun, or convivere as a verb. In modern English, we call it "living together," but a more official but perhaps outdated noun would be "cohabitation." The question comes up in the TV movie Sposami, where a young couple is having trouble planning their marriage in a way that will satisfy both sets of parents.
Perché non pensi a una bella convivenza, eh? Dai!
Why not think about just living together, huh? Come on!
Caption 58, Sposami EP 1 - Part 18Play Caption
Taking apart this verb and noun makes it easy to understand:
vivere (to live) + con (with) = convivere (to live with, to live together)
The verb convivere is used to mean "to coexist." So not necessarily "together," but at the same time, in the same space.
Ora, i resti dell'antico tempio e della primitiva cattedrale sono incastonati all'interno e all'esterno: elementi pagani e cristiani che si fondono, convivono...
Now, the remains of the ancient temple and the early cathedral are built-in on the inside and the outside: pagan and Christian elements that fuse together, that coexist...
Captions 9-10, Itinerari Della Bellezza Basilicata - Part 4Play Caption
We also use convivere when we have to bear, endure, tolerate, accept, or live with a situation or condition. Right now people are "living with" the presence of the coronavirus.
Si convive (one lives with it).
Dovremo convivere con il coronavirus per parecchio tempo ancora (we will have to live with the coronavirus for some time yet).
People who are living together may be called conviventi. It describes the state
La parete divisoria è abusiva, quindi per lo Stato noi siamo già conviventi.
The dividing wall is illegal, so for the State, we're already living together.
Captions 6-7, La Tempesta film - Part 16Play Caption
Conviventi is actually the present participle of convivere. We don't think about the present participle in English much, but it does exist. It is part of the present continuous or progressive tense and ends in "-ing." It looks just like a gerund but works differently.
We could put the previous example in the present continuous, but we would need a different verb (stare instead of essere, both translating to "to be").
La parete divisoria è abusiva, quindi per lo Stato noi stiamo già convivendo.
The dividing wall is illegal, so for the State, we are already living together.
Here's the difference:
A gerund is a form of a verb used as a noun, whereas a participle is a form of verb used as an adjective or as a verb in conjunction with an auxiliary verb. In English, the present participle has the same form as the gerund, and the difference is in how they are used.
Why is this important to know? In English it doesn't matter much--we know how to use these words and we don't much care what they are called. But it can help us understand the Italian present participle, which, unlike English, does have a different form, and often causes confusion for learners.
If you look at a conjugation chart, at the top you will see something like this:
convivereIt is conjugated like: vivereinfinite: conviveregerundio: convivendoparticipio presents: conviventeparticipio passato: convissutoforma pronominale: (n/a)
For those of you following Daniela's lessons, there is one about participles.
Il participio anche ha due tempi, il presente e il passato. Al presente, il participio è "andante" e al passato sarebbe "andato".
The participle has two different tenses, the present and the past. In the present, the participle is "going" and in the past it would be "gone."
Captions 7-10, Corso di italiano con Daniela Modi Indefiniti - Part 2Play Caption
That's it for this lesson. We hope you have learned something useful, and we encourage you to write to us with questions, doubts or ideas. firstname.lastname@example.org.
In the last lesson, we talked about the generic verb sistemare. Now, let's talk about a verb that is more specific when it comes to repairing things, but which has some surprising additional meanings.
This true cognate is an easy word to remember since it is so close to the English verb "to repair."
Io non ci metto le mani. La mandi a riparare in fabbrica.
I'm not going to touch it. You can send it to the factory to be repaired.Play Caption
Ripara le ruote e le gomme delle automobili, delle biciclette e delle motociclette.
He fixes wheels and tires of cars, bicycles and motorcycles.
Caption 48, Marika spiega Il nome dei negozi - Part 2Play Caption
Riparo can be the first person singular of the verb riparare.
Venga, la riprenda. Mi spiace, ma io questa non la riparo.
Come, take it back. I'm sorry, but I'm not repairing this one.
Captions 4-5, Adriano Olivetti La forza di un sogno Ep. 1 - Part 23Play Caption
But il riparo is also a noun. The following example gives us an idea of what it means.
Perché questo luogo è sempre stato in lotta con la sete dei conquistatori: Saraceni, Longobardi, Normanni. Ma è anche un luogo che ha offerto riparo,
Because this place has always been fought over due to the thirst of conquerors: Saracens, Longobards, Normans. But it's also a place that has offered shelter.
Captions 12-14, Itinerari Della Bellezza Basilicata - Part 1Play Caption
So riparo means "shelter," but what's interesting is that we can also use the verb riparare to mean "to shelter," "to protect." We can also use it reflexively ripararsi to mean "to take refuge." In this case, it's intransitive. This meaning is closely related to that of a similar verb, parare (to protect, to shield, to fend off).
Uè, però tirate piano, altrimenti non riesco a parare niente.
Hey, kick lightly though, otherwise I can't block anything.
Caption 41, L'oro di Scampia film - Part 8Play Caption
As a matter of fact, just as other Italian verbs with the prefix ri often have the same or similar meanings to the verb without the prefix (for example tornare, ritornare [to return]), sometimes, riparare and parare can mean the same thing. Parare is straightforwardly transitive.
Para, the third person singular of parare, is often used as part of the kind of compound noun that tells you what something does.
On a car, we have il parabrezza (the windshield). It fends off the wind.
We have parafanghi (fenders) on bicycles (fango = mud). It fends off the mud.
Un parasole (an awning, a parasol) helps to block the sunlight.
Riparare (when it means protection or shielding) is often used in the context of protecting things from the elements — things such as plants, animals, objects, people, houses, camping spots, etc. The preposition of choice is da (from).
L'ombrellone ti ripara dal sole. The beach umbrella protects you from the sun.
The following example has to do with an animated elephant who needed to do something in private. The past participle of riparare easily becomes an adjective!
C'era da trovare alla svelta un angolino riparato.
A sheltered corner needed to be found quickly.
Caption 13, Dixieland La magia di TriboPlay Caption
Riparare can also mean "to remedy," "to make up for," "to put right." In English, we can use "to repair" in this case, too, but there are other, easier Italian verbs for these nuances.
What we have tried to provide here are the words you will most commonly hear in everyday speech, and the ones you will want to know if you need to choose a spot for a picnic in Tuscany, get your shoes fixed, or find some shelter when out hiking and it starts raining.
We often need to get things fixed, even if we happen to be on vacation. Things break: shoes, luggage, computers, etc. Let's look at some of the different words Italians use to fix things.
Sistemare is a great verb because it can be used in so many situations where you might not know a more technical or specific verb to use. It can mean "to make things right," as in sistemare una situazione (to resolve a situation), or "to take care of":
Certo, ma prima però ha il dovere di sistemare suo cugino Pino. E poi c'è il massaro. -Chi? Un vedovo che vive con il figlio nella dependance della fattoria. Andrebbe sistemato anche lui. Andrebbe o va? -Va. Va.
Of course, but first you have the duty of setting up your cousin Pino. And then there is the farmer. -Who? A widower who lives with his son in an outbuilding of the farm. He should get taken care of as well. He should be or he has to be? -He has to be. He has to be.
Captions 51-56, Sei mai stata sulla luna? film - Part 4Play Caption
Sistemare can mean "to arrange," as in neatening up a room, or putting flowers in a vase:
Chiaramente dopo che avrai sistemato i tuoi fiori.
Clearly, after you have taken care of your flowers.Play Caption
Here we have an example using the reflexive form of the verb. It can mean "to settle in" as in the example. It often means "to find a good job" or even "to find a husband/wife." It can also mean "to freshen up."
Ti sei sistemata? Sei in clinica?
Did you settle in? Are you at the clinic?
Caption 16, Sposami EP 1 - Part 8Play Caption
Sistemare can also be used for large-scale jobs like renovations:
Quando si è sistemata la piazza nel millenovecentonovantuno, ci si è accorti che il palombaro, cioè questa grande cisterna, era colmo fino all'orlo.
When the piazza was renovated in nineteen ninety-one, they noticed that the "palombaro", that is, this large cistern, was full to the brim.
Captions 12-13, Alberto Angela - Meraviglie EP. 1 - Part 15Play Caption
Here the passive voice was used perhaps because we don't really know who renovated the piazza. They could have said:
Quando hanno sistemato la piazza... (when they renovated the piazza...)
I might have a lawnmower that no longer works. I take it to be repaired. La porto a far sistemare. You ask the repairman,
Mi puoi sistemare questo tosaerba (can you fix this lawnmower)?
You go to the hairdresser:
Mi potresti dare una sistemata ai capelli (can you give my hair a trim)?
In this case, you are not asking for a major change. You just want your hair to look nice. And we've turned the verb into a noun, something Italians do all the time!
You bring some broken shoes to the calzolaio.
Mi potrebbe sistemare questo paio di scarpe (could you fix this pair of shoes)?
There might be more specific words to use in any of these situations, but sistemare is a go-to verb to have in your vocabulary toolbox.
In future lessons we will look at some other verbs we can use when we want to fix something. Stay tuned for:
mettere a posto
We looked at the noun torto in a previous lesson. We can say hai torto (you're wrong). But what about when you're right? Being right uses the noun ragione, but let's first take a closer look at this versatile noun and related forms.
In Italian, la ragione is a partial true cognate. When used to mean "the reason," it makes sense to us because it's a true cognate:
E c'è una ragione molto precisa.
And there is a very precise reason.
Caption 21, Alberto Angela - Meraviglie EP. 2 - Part 2Play Caption
We also have a verb form: ragionare (to reason, to think, to reflect):
Cerchiamo di ragionare con calma.
Let's try to think about this calmly.Play Caption
We have an adjective, too: ragionevole (reasonable):
Siccome mi sembra anche una persona piuttosto ragionevole, io spero non ci saranno problemi, ecco.
Since you also seem like a rather reasonable person, I hope there won't be any problems, that's it.
Captions 55-56, Sei mai stata sulla luna? film - Part 7Play Caption
But we also use the noun ragione (without the article) together with the verb avere (to have) to mean "to be right."
avere ragione (to be right) -- literally, it would be "to have right."
In Italian, aver ragione has come to mean "to be right." And people use this expression countless times every day, so it's great to have it in your toolbox. The verb you need to conjugate is avere (to have), which is probably one of the first verbs to learn in Italian. Here's the conjugation chart for avere. But you don't need an article for ragione in this case, so it couldn't get much easier than that. Abbiamo ragione (are we right)?
Avevi ragione tu. Gabriele s'era messo nei guai. Gare di cross illegali.
You were right. Gabriele got into trouble. Illegal dirt bike racing.
Captions 18-19, Il Commissario Manara S2EP1 - Matrimonio con delitto - Part 8Play Caption
Il cliente ha sempre ragione?
The customer is always right?
Caption 70, La Ladra Ep. 4 - Una magica bionda - Part 2Play Caption
Sono stufa delle tue promesse. Sono anni che aspetto che lasci tua moglie... -Hai ragione. -e io non... Hai ragione, hai ragione. Va bene.
I'm sick of your promises. I've been waiting for you to leave your wife for years... -You're right. -and I won't... You're right, you're right. All right.
Captions 68-71, Il Commissario Manara S2EP9 - L'amica ritrovata - Part 5Play Caption
"To prove someone right" can be dare ragione,
Non ti interessa il parere di nessuno. -Ma poi i risultati mi danno ragione.
You're not interested in anyone's opinion. -But afterwards, the results prove me right.
Captions 21-22, Adriano Olivetti La forza di un sogno Ep. 1 - Part 12Play Caption
But we can also use dare ragione when we admit or agree that someone else is right. It's just an additional nuance to saying "you're right."
Su questo, ti dò ragione.
About that, I agree you're right.
Do a search of ragione on the videos page and you will get plenty of examples in various conjugations and contexts, where ragione might mean "right" and where it might mean "reason." It's a great way to get lots of different examples all at once. Try repeating some of them out loud.
And remember: The trickiest thing to remember is that the verb to use is avere (to have), not essere (to be).
We will close with a little expression that's also the title of this lesson:
a torto o a ragione (wrong or right), rimango della mia idea (I'm not changing my mind).
In English, we would start with "right," but you get the idea!
That's it for this lesson, and we hope that when someone else is right, you will be able to tell them so in Italian! If you have questions about this, just write to us at email@example.com.
One of our Yabla learners has asked about what to say when someone has died, or what to write in a condolence note. There have been so many deaths from the coronvirus that expressing condolences is an important thing to be able to do.
The most important word is condoglianze, from con [with] and doglianza (lament). In other words, you are mourning with the person to whom you express your condolences. You feel their sorrow. The English cognate is a true one, which makes it easy to remember.
In the following example, the condolences are expressed as part of a conversation, and the person talking is not a close friend -- he's a sort of lawyer (and note that in Italian, a person's professional title is often used by itself to address him or her), so the condolences are very basic and quick, but perfectly acceptable and polite. The adjective to know is sentito. This comes from the verb sentire (to feel, to hear, to sense). Sentito can mean "sincere," "heartfelt," or "deep."
Buongiorno notaio, piacere. -Condoglianze sentitissime. -Grazie tante, tante grazie.
Hello, Notary, pleased to meet you. -My deepest condolences. -Thanks very much, many thanks.
Captions 30-32, Sei mai stata sulla luna? film - Part 4Play Caption
Le mie condoglianze, dottor Del Serio. -Grazie.
My condolences, Doctor Del Serio. -Thank you.
Caption 26, La Tempesta film - Part 13Play Caption
So really, just two words were used, and it could have been just one: condoglianze. It's enough, especially when you don't really know the person who passed away.
If we're talking to a friend who has just lost a family member, for example, we can use the informal verb fare (to make, to do). You might not know the person who died, but you know that your friend is grieving:
Ti faccio le condoglianze per la perdita di tuo padre/nonno/tua madre/nonna.
I'm sorry for the loss of your father/grandfather/mother/grandmother.
You can also keep this short and just say:
Ti faccio le condoglianze.
I'm sorry for your loss.
But if we want to say more, here's a common way to do it. It employs the verb porgere, to extend, to offer.
This first example is if you are speaking or writing formally to one person you aren't on a first-name basis with.
Le porgo le mie più sentite condoglianze.
I extend my deepest condolences to you.
If you are talking or writing to more than one person, say, parents, or a couple, or an entire family, then it's:
Vi porgo le mie più sentite condoglianze.
I offer you my deepest condolences.
You can also leave out mentioning the person:
In questa triste circostanza porgiamo sentite condoglianze.
On this sad occasion, we offer heartfelt condolences.
Another word people use when sending a condolence note is cordoglio (grief, sorrow, mourning, condolences).
Esprimiamo con grande dolore il nostro cordoglio.
We would like to express, with great sorrow, our condolences.
Another important word to know is il lutto (the mourning, the bereavement, the grief). This example describes an ancient Roman sarcophagus of a child.
E i due genitori sono affranti, di lato c'è la mamma che sembra ormai avvolta in un dolore profondo, irrecuperabile. E poi c'è il padre. Entrambi hanno il capo coperto con un velo in segno di lutto, non guardano più neanche il bambino.
And the two parents are overcome. At the side there's the mother who by now seems to be shrouded in deep, hopeless sorrow. And then there is the father. Both have their heads covered with a veil as a sign of mourning. They no longer even look at the child.
Captions 37-40, Alberto Angela - Meraviglie EP. 2 - Part 6Play Caption
You can use lutto in a condolence note:
Partecipiamo commossi al vostro lutto.
We take part, emotionally moved, in your grief [we feel/join in your grief].
A shop or restaurant, where a family member or employee has died, might have a sign that says:
Chiuso per lutto
Closed for bereavement
One more word you might see, for example, on the signs we see around in Italian towns, announcing the death of a citizen, is addolorato (aggrieved, distressed). It comes from the verb addolorare (to sadden) or addolorarsi (to be saddened).
Sei confusa, addolorata, ma lo sai che lui ti merita.
You're confused, aggrieved, but you know that he deserves you.
Captions 85-86, Il Commissario Manara S1EP11 - Beato tra le donne - Part 11Play Caption
You can use addolorato in a condolence note:
Sono addolorato per la tua perdita.
I am saddened by your loss.
We hope you won't need these words, but if you do, they're here. Feel free to send us questions or requests for further information.
When you're wrong you're wrong. There are various Italian words connected with being wrong or making a mistake. Let's look at the various ways to be wrong and the nuances that set them apart.
Fare un errore. This works fine when you need a noun. If you have trouble with rolling your r's, this word can be a challenge.
Fai errore dopo errore.
You make mistake after mistake.
Caption 53, Stai lontana da me Rai Cinema - Part 3Play Caption
The verb sbagliare (to make a mistake) plus reflexive form sbagliarsi (to be mistaken), and its noun form lo sbaglio (the mistake, the error) are very common.
Io c'entro, c'entro eccome, perché lei è una mia allieva. E se lei sbaglia, vuol dire che anche io ho sbagliato qualcosa con lei.
I'm involved, I'm absolutely involved because she's my student. And if she makes a mistake, it means that I also made a mistake with her.
Captions 46-47, Provaci Ancora Prof! S1E1 - Il regalo di Babbo Natale - Part 9Play Caption
There's a fine line between the normal verb and its reflexive form. One reason for this is that sbagliare as a normal verb can either be transitive or intransitive.
Ho sbagliato strada (I took the wrong route, I went the wrong way).
Ho sbagliato (I made a mistake, I made a wrong move, I did something wrong).
Sbagliare è umano (making mistakes is human).
Tutti sbagliano (everyone makes mistakes).
Piove, o sbaglio (It's raining, or am I mistaken)?
The reflexive form sbagliarsi, tends to be more about being wrong than making a mistake — a bit less active, we could say — and the sentence structure changes as well. The reflexive form is intransitive, so we need a preposition between the verb and the indirect object. As a result, it's a bit more complicated to use.
Mi sono sbagliato (I was wrong, I was mistaken)
Mi sbaglio o sta piovendo (am I mistaken or is it raining)?
In the following example, the preposition is a (to) and rather than "being wrong," it's "going wrong."
Mi creda, a puntare sul pesce non si sbaglia mai.
Believe me. With fish you can never go wrong.
Caption 2, La Ladra Ep. 6 - Nero di rabbia - Part 1Play Caption
This is a great expression to have in your collection:
Non si sbaglia mai (one can't go wrong).
Non ti puoi sbagliare (you can't go wrong).
As you watch Yabla videos, you will see countless instances of sbagliare, sbagliarsi and lo sbaglio. See if you can sense when people use one or the other. In many cases, there are multiple possibilities.
Some of us may recognize the cognate: "tort." When you study law, one course you take is "torts." In English a tort is simply a civil wrong.
How to use the Italian noun torto, however, is a different story.
In a recent episode of Sposami, a divorcing couple is forced to get along and work together, even though they can't stand each other. But each of them wants to keep the dog, and therefore they each have to be on their best behavior. They go crying to their divorce lawyer each time the other does something wrong. And in one such conversation, the word torto comes up.
Ugo, cerca di essere collaborativo, se no, tu capisci, mi passi dalla parte del torto.
Ugo, try to be collaborative, otherwise, you understand, you'll end up being in the wrong.
Captions 68-69, Sposami EP 1 - Part 13Play Caption
So this is a lawyer talking, but we also use torto or its plural torti in everyday conversation. A son is complaining to his mother, and her boyfriend chimes in:
A ma' [mamma], ti prego. Ce tratti come du [romanesco: ci tratti come due] ragazzini! -Va be', non ha tutti i torti. Io alla loro età, nemmeno lo chiedevo più il permesso.
Oh Mom, please. You treat us like a couple of little kids! -Well, he's not totally wrong. At their age, I no longer even asked for permission.
Captions 69-72, La Ladra Ep. 7 - Il piccolo ladro - Part 2Play Caption
Here are some other expressions with torti. Remember that we use the verb avere (to have) in this expression.
Avere torto (to be wrong).
With all these word choices for making mistakes and being wrong, non ti puoi sbagliare!
It's true that asking questions in Italian can be as easy as changing your inflection. Part one of this lesson discusses that. Nonetheless, there are times when you need question words (and we'll get to that in a future lesson). But even more basically, how do we talk about asking questions?
While the cognate questione exists, it's not the word we are looking for right now. We'll talk about questione further on. In English, we have the noun "the question" and we ask a question.
In Italian, it's a little different. "The question" is often translated into Italian as la domanda and rather than using a verb that means "to ask," Italians usually "make" a question with fare (to make, to do):
Quando io conosco una persona, prima la saluto. Abbiamo imparato: buongiorno, buonasera, poi faccio la seconda domanda importante: come ti chiami?
When I meet a person, first I greet him or her. We learned "good morning" — "good evening." Then I ask the second important question: What's your name?
Captions 9-11, Corso di italiano con Daniela Tu o Lei?Play Caption
More often than not, we ask someone a question, so we may need an indirect pronoun: "I ask you/him/her/them/myself a question." In Italian, this indirect pronoun often comes before the verb, as in the following example.
Ma, ci torneresti con tua moglie? -No. Perché mi fai questa domanda?
But would you go back to your wife? -No. Why are you asking me this question?
Captions 33-34, Sposami EP 1 - Part 7Play Caption
The previous example was a question, but even in a statement, the indirect pronoun will come before the verb.
Ti faccio una domanda semplice (I'm going to ask you a simple question).
There is another verb we can use in place of fare. It's a little more formal, it has an English cognate, and it often indicates that some thought is needed in the asking and the answering. The verb is porre (to put, to place, to pose).
Daniela talks about this verb in a lesson:
"Porre": io ponevo, si usa spesso con "domanda". "Scusi, posso porre una domanda?" Al posto di "fare" — "posso fare una domanda?" — dico: "Posso porre una domanda?"
“To pose.” I was posing, it's often used with "question." “Sorry, may I pose a question?” Instead of using “to ask” — "may I ask a question?" — I say: “May I pose a question?”
Captions 33-37, Corso di italiano con Daniela L'imperfetto - Part 4Play Caption
We use the reflexive for this in Italian:
Allora, pur con la testa tra le nuvole, cominciò a porsi qualche domanda. Ma, ma il resto di me c'è ancora?...
So, even with his head in the clouds, he began to ask himself a few questions. But, but is the rest of me still here?...
Captions 13-15, Dixieland Testa tra le nuvolePlay Caption
You can also use the verb fare reflexively for the same purpose — farsi una domanda (to ask oneself a question).
La domanda has a verb form as well, and we can use it both reflexively and not: domandare (to ask).
Of course, sometimes we don't need to ask a question. We can just ask someone something. Domandare (to ask).
Perché non mi lasci in pace? -Eh, me lo domando anch'io.
Why don't you leave me in peace? -Yeah, I ask myself that, too.Play Caption
Just as in English we have the noun and verb "to request," Italian has the cognate richiedere (to request, to require) and la richiesta (the request) but it also has chiedere (to ask, to request), which is used a lot, in many different contexts.
Dal momento che il progetto del tuo muro taglierebbe fuori la mia zona di cucina, avresti dovuto chiedere il mio parere.
Since your wall project would cut off my kitchen area, you should have asked for my opinion.
Captions 22-24, La Ladra Ep. 7 - Il piccolo ladro - Part 9Play Caption
In the following example, we can see the relationship between chiedere and richiesta.
Lorenzo ti ha chiesto di dargli un po' di tempo, no? Fossi in te, rispetterei la sua richiesta.
Lorenzo asked you to give him a little time, right? If I were you, I would comply with his request.
Captions 33-34, La Ladra EP. 8 - Il momento giusto - Part 7Play Caption
Making sense of the different ways to use richiedere will have to wait for another lesson. It can get kind of complex.
Let's remember that in English, "question" can also mean "matter." For example in this book title: A Question of Integrity by Susan Howatch. In this case, it's not a question we ask. With that in mind, we can easily transfer the idea to Italian. In fact, we have a movie on Yabla: Questione di Karma.
Sono dieci giorni che aspetto, è diventata una questione di vita o di morte.
I've been waiting ten days. It's become a question/matter of life or death.
Caption 5, Questione di Karma Rai Cinema - Part 8Play Caption
What we hope you take away from this lesson is that for normal questions you ask, the noun is la domanda (the question) and that we "make" a question: fare una domanda (to ask a question). Using porre works, too, but it's a little more serious: porre una domanda (to pose a question). Both fare and porre can be used reflexively when we ask ourselves a question: porsi una domanda (to ask oneself a question, to wonder), farsi una domanda (to ask oneself a question). We can talk about asking with the verbs domandare (to ask) and chiedere (to ask).
To get a feel for all these words, we suggest doing a search on the videos page to find examples of these words. Don't forget to use singular, plural, masculine and feminine where applicable, and different conjugations of verbs. Searching and reading all the instances will give you an overview of real people using these words. Repeat the sentences to yourself, and if you get confused, drop us a line — chiedere! — in the comments tab or by sending an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. We are happy to help.
When you want to say that something is watertight, that you have no doubt about it —in other words, there is no use in discussing it further —there is a great Italian expression at your disposal. Even if you don't understand why people say it, you can start noticing when people say it and imitate them. And you will soon start sounding like a native as you say it.
Ragazze, la C sta per Catullo e su questo non ci piove.
Girls, the "C" stands for Catullus, and the rain can't touch it [there is no doubt about it].
Captions 71-72, La Ladra EP. 9 L'amico sconosciuto - Part 3Play Caption
It means there is no hole in the argument, but that's not so easy to figure out from the expression, especially since it uses that pesky particle ci that means so many things. It's kind of fun to figure out, or at least imagine why Italians use this colorful expression, and where it comes from.
In Italy, roofs are often made of tiles or tegole. If you move a tegola around, the rain might leak into the house. This can happen accidentally, with high winds, or if someone walks on the roof for some reason, like to clean out the gutters or adjust an antenna. If it rains into the house, ci piove (it rains there, it rains in it).
So besides being a great expression, when talking about leaky roofs, it usually means the rain comes in. It's not easy finding a literal translation that makes sense, which is why we've talked about it here.
When the leak has to do with a pipe or a faucet, we talk about it losing water. We use the verb perdere (to lose, to leak).
Ma... questo non perde più! -No! Non mi dire che l'idraulico s'è degnato? Eva, stamattina qua è passato un vero uomo, eh? Che oltre ad aggiustà [aggiustare] i rubinetti così, proprio tà tà tà l'ha fatto eh!
Well! This no longer leaks! -No! Don't tell me the plumber deigned? Eva, this morning a real man came here, huh? Who besides fixing the faucet just like that, he did it really fast, huh!
Captions 11-14, La Ladra Ep. 1 - Le cose cambiano - Part 3Play Caption
See this lesson about the verb perdere.
Another thing to say when an argument is airtight is: Non fa una piega (there isn't even one wrinkle).
È evidente che avrebbe dovuto vincere Fabiola Alfieri. Allora perché non ha votato per lei? -Perché il direttore di un giornale può essere molto utile alla carriera di un marito come il mio. -Non fa una piega, però non mi convince.
It's clear that Fabiola Alfieri should have won. So why didn't you vote for her? Because the director of a newspaper can be very useful to the career of a husband like mine. That a perfect argument, but it doesn't convince me.
Captions 34-37, Il Commissario Manara S2EP4 - Miss Maremma - Part 4Play Caption
Practice commenting inside your head with su questo non ci piove or non fa una piega when people are justifying, explaining, arguing, debating.
Note that another way to say non fa una piega is non fa una grinza. They both mean the same thing. There's a lesson about this!
The main topic of conversation in lots of places right now is "coronavirus." We hope that it won't last too long, because in addition to making people sick, with some people even dying, it's also wildly disrupting the life of many people around the world.
Italy has been hit particularly hard and is consequently in the spotlight, so let's look at some of the words people and newspapers are using to talk about it.
In English, we talk about "lockdown" to describe the measures Italy is taking to try to prevent the spread of the virus. There are a few options for an Italian translation: l'isolamento (the isolation), il blocco (the blocking, the closing off), blindare (to lock down) blindato (locked down).
Let's talk about some of the vocabulary Italians are using to talk about what's going on.
To begin with, let's look at a headline from Sunday, March 8, when new rules went into effect for the zone rosse (the red zones, or epicenters), including Lombardy, the Veneto, and other regions.
Covid-19, nuove regole: evitare ogni spostamento nelle zone colpite
(Covid -19, new rules: avoid any traveling/moving around in the affected areas).
Let's look at the words in the headline.
This is pretty self-explanatory. The two words are similar to their English counterparts: the adjective nuovo (new) and the noun la regola. In this case, it is a feminine noun in the plural — le regole. The adjective nuovo has to agree with the noun, so its "o" ending changes to "e" the feminine plural ending.
usare i pronomi relativi "quale" e "quali", per evitare possibili ambiguità,
to use the relative pronouns "quale" and "quali," to avoid possible ambiguities,
Captions 7-8, Corso di italiano con Daniela Pronomi relativi - Part 5Play Caption
This easy, common, and useful adjective never changes. it's worth looking up in your dictionary of choice because it can be used in such a variety of ways. One common expression is ogni tanto (every now and then).
E ogni tanto, però, parlavamo di cose serie.
And every now and then, though, we talked about serious things.
Caption 32, Silvana e Luciano Il nostro incontroPlay Caption
In the headline, of course, we are talking about "each and every." In other words, "Avoid unnecessary travel." "Avoid all cases of moving around the area."
This interesting noun comes from the verb spostare, also an interesting word. It's interesting because there is no specific equivalent in English, yet once you learn it in Italian, you'll wonder how you could do without it. Did you detect another word inside the verb spostare? Yes, it's posto, the noun, il posto (the place, the position, the location). So spostare, with its telltale "s" prefix, means to take something away from its place. And it can be used reflexively when you are the one moving yourself away from a place. What a wonderful verb! Usually, we use the verb "to move" to translate spostare, but sometimes it's "to shift," "to re-locate," "to transfer," "to move around." In short, if you live in the zona rossa (red zone) you should move around the area as little as possible.
Il verbo "andare" indica uno spostamento verso un luogo ed è seguito da diverse preposizioni a seconda del nome che lo segue:
The verb “andare” indicates a movement towards a place, and is followed by various prepositions, according to the noun that follows it:
Captions 31-33, Marika spiega I verbi venire e andare - Part 1Play Caption
This is an easy noun with a "friendly" English cognate. Just remember that the original noun is la zona. Zone is plural. La zona is often translated with "the area."
This past participle comes from the verb colpire (to hit, to affect, to make an impression on). Since it's a headline, all the little words that tell you it's a past participle are missing:
Le zone che sono state colpite (the zones that were hit). Colpire can have literal and figuarative meanings of different kinds.
Poi un'altra cosa che mi ha colpito molto è che io vengo da una terra dove l'acqua è un bene prezioso, non ce n'è molta.
Then, another thing that made a strong impression on me was that I come from a land where water is a precious resource, there isn't much of it.
Captions 43-45, Gianni si racconta Chi sonoPlay Caption
In the headline, the connotation of colpire is "to affect."
Let's have just a quick look at some of the other rules:
Divieto assoluto di uscire dalla propria abitazione per chi è sottoposto alla quarantena o è risultato positivo al virus.
If you have been quarantined or if you have tested positive to the virus, you must not leave your home.
Ma cos'è questo fumo? Hm. -Perché mi guarda così? Perché qui è vietato fumare.
But, what is this smoke? Uhm. -Why are you looking at me like that? Because here smoking is prohibited.
Captions 20-22, Psicovip Il fulmine - Ep 4Play Caption
Stop is pretty clear! In the explanation that follows the rule, however, the Italian word sospesi (suspended) is used.
Sono sospesi gli eventi e le competizioni sportive di ogni ordine e disciplina... (sporting events and competitions on every level and of every kind have been suspended...)
Favorire congedo ordinario o ferie (encourage leaves of absence and vacation days).
Favorire is another verb that is partly a true cognate, but often means "to encourage," "to foster."
Chiuso (closed) is pretty clear —from the verb chiudere (to close).
These same rules have been applied to museums, gyms, spas, ski resorts, and many other centers.
The list goes on, but we have covered some of the important rules here and the vocabulary associated with them.
Further vocabulary to know regarding the virus:
Things are tough for Italians (and many others!) right now. Besides the virus itself, everyday life has become complicated for lots of folks. Those of us who work remotely feel fortunati (lucky) to be able to do our jobs in a normal way, but we might have kids underfoot who would ordinarily be in school! If everyone cooperates, taking the right precautions, hopefully, we can beat this thing.
La speranza è l'ultima a morire (hope is the last to die — hope springs eternal).
If you have heard or read things in Italian about the virus that you aren't able to understand, let us know and we'll try to help. Write to us at email@example.com