When Marika showed us her balcony, she used a couple of long words that may have seemed a bit daunting. There are certainly plenty of long words in Italian that are just plain difficult, like farmaceutico (pharmaceutical). The meaning is clear, but pronouncing it takes some practice (don’t snub any of the vowels). Other words, though, have common abbreviations that make life easier. And some long words can be broken down into their parts, making them easily comprehensible as well as pronounceable.
One of the words Marika used in her video was stendibiancheria. It’s long but there’s help.
First of all, most people just say lo stendino (the drying rack).
Second of all, if we start breaking down stendibiancheria into manageable parts, the next time it comes up, you’ll know what it means from the inside out, and you will probably be able to pronounce it as well.
We start out with the verb stendere. It’s a very useful verb that means to spread, to lay out, to stretch out, to extend over space. Thinking of “extend” can help recall this verb.
An interesting extra fact is this:
In the eighteenth century, in Tuscany at least, the (transitive) verb was tendere, that is, to stretch out, to unfold (after washing and wringing out) so that the laundry would dry faster.
As we have learned in a video, and a written lesson, adding an s at the beginning of a word can give it an opposite meaning. So, stendere used to be the opposite of tendere, and meant taking in the now dry laundry, or rather taking it off the clothesline.
Later on, stendere and tendere lost their distinction (dictionaries indicate that in many contexts, stendere and tendere mean the same thing).
Stendere survived as the most common term for hanging up the laundry. Let’s also remember that lacking a clothesline, some people would also have spread their clean laundry on bushes or rocks to catch the sun, so stendere—“spreading it out” makes a certain amount of sense.
Another important context for stendere is cooking.
In the following example, we start out with little balls of pizza dough, but then we spread them out to cover a larger area. So when you are following a recipe in Italian for making fresh pasta or pizza, stendere la sfoglia is when you roll out the dough, spread it out by hand, or use a pasta machine to make wide, flat strips.
Queste pallette [palline] poi vanno fatte lievitare circa due ore e si stende la pizza.
These little balls then are left to rise about two hours and you roll out the pizza.
Captions 15-16, Anna e Marika - Pizza al taglio romana - Part 2Play Caption
The past participle of stendere, steso, which can also pass for an adjective, is useful for when you are talking about positions in space.
Stavo, mi ricordo, guardando le olimpiadi, stesa sul divano come una balena spiaggiata.
I was, I remember, watching the Olympics, lying on the couch like a beached whale.
Captions 12-13, Anna presenta - Il mio partoPlay Caption
In the above example, “stretched out” could have worked just as well to translate Anna’s position.
When referring to muscles or just how someone feels, we can use teso (tense), the past participle of tendere, also used as an adjective.
Ha notato qualcosa di strano? Se era teso, preoccupato?
Did you notice anything strange? If he was tense, worried?Play Caption
The prefix dis is also used to give a word the opposite meaning. In fact, disteso, the past participle of distendere and adjective, can mean either “relaxed,” “unwound,” or “out,” as in the following example.
Per dire: "ci sentiamo per telefono", si porta la mano all'altezza dell'orecchio e si simula la cornetta, tenendo pollice e mignolo distesi.
To say, "we'll talk by phone," you bring your hand up to the height of your ear and you imitate a receiver, holding your thumb and little finger out.
Captions 9-12, Arianna spiega - I gesti degli Italiani - Part 2Play Caption
Tendere also means “to tend” as in tendenza (tendency). That’s a nice cognate, isn’t it?
Le piante tendono, quando si inselvatichiscono, a fare i frutti molto più piccoli.
Plants tend, when they become wild, to produce much smaller fruit.
Captions 17-18, Gianni si racconta - L'olivo e i roviPlay Caption
It’s easy to be confused by all these words that are so close in meaning. Context is key, so just keep watching, listening, and reading, and piano piano ce la farai (little by little you’ll make it), one word at a time!
No, papà è che c'ho parecchio lavoro da fare, sono un po' sotto pressione.
No, Dad, it's that I have quite a lot of work to do; I'm under a bit of pressure.Play Caption
Parecchio might be less familiar to you than molto.
Ho molto lavoro (I have a lot of work).
Like molto, parecchio is used as an adjective and in this case has different endings depending on whether it modifies a masculine or feminine noun and depending on whether it’s plural or singular.
Il lavoro is masculine, so it’s parecchio lavoro or molto lavoro.
Ci sono parecchie cose strane.
There are a lot of strange things.Play Caption
La cosa is feminine and it’s plural, so we say parecchie cose or molte cose.
But like molto, parecchio is also an adverb. In the following example, parecchio could easily replace molto.
Mi piace molto il posto e poi ho ritrovato vecchi amici e la zia è deliziosa come sempre.
I like the place a lot and then I met up with old friends and Aunt is charming as always.
Captions 13-14, Il Commissario Manara - S1EP11 - Beato tra le donne - Part 7Play Caption
Un sacco is quite colloquial, as is “bunch!” Sacco translates as “bag,” or “sack, so imagine a big bag of something!
Non fare questa faccia, vedrai che ti farai un sacco di amici.
Don't make that face. You'll see that you'll make a bunch of friends.
Caption 10, La Tempesta - film - Part 9Play Caption
Tanto is another word for a lot. Like the other words above, it can be used as an adjective:
E... insomma, dopo un tempo che in quel momento non sapevo stimare se era tanto o poco
And... in short, after a time, which in that moment I couldn't assess whether it was a lot or a little
Captions 54-55, Anna presenta - Il mio partoPlay Caption
Certo che firmo per la barella, non avevo tanta scelta.
Of course I'll sign for a gurney. I didn't have much choice.
Caption 33, Anna presenta - Il mio partoPlay Caption
Tanto can be used as an adverb as well.
Non andavo tanto veloce, ma mi hanno fatto la multa.
I wasn’t going very fast, but they gave me a ticket.
It’s always good to know several different ways to say something. Variety is the spice of life!